Concept Mapping. Cognition (Cognitive Learning) What does this word mean? How about “Recognize” or “Incognito”? (do these help) What then is a cognitive.
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Cognition (Cognitive Learning) What does this word mean? How about “Recognize” or “Incognito”? (do these help) What then is a cognitive view of learning? How might this contrast with a behaviorist perspective?
Consider Does our knowledge have a unique structure in our minds, or is it just an accumulated pile of information?
Changes in Epistemology 1950’s Positivism and Logical Positivism are Dominant Cumulative progression of knowledge in a rational and objective way 1960’ to 1980’s Constructivism and Realist philosophies emerge Knowledge as unique to the learner
Theory of Knowledge: All knowledge is constructed by human beings. The process is influenced by: idiosyncratic differences I say “tree”and you visualize a concept of a pine, while someone else thinks maple the cultural milieu. “Tree” for Easterner is not the same (potentially) as “Tree” for someone who lives among cacti
Changes in Psychology 1950’s -- Behavioral Psychology is dominant, especially in USA 1963 -- Ausubel’s Psychology of Meaningful Learning published 1980’s Cognitive psychology moves to dominance
David Ausubel (1968): If I had to reduce all of educational psychology to just one principle I would say this: The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach him accordingly.* * Epigraph, Educational Psychology: A cognitive view
Learning may vary from highly rote to highly meaningful
Concept: A perceived regularity in events or objects, or records of events or objects, designated by a label A Theory of Knowledge
Proposition: Two or more concepts combined to form a statement about something: a unit of meaning A Theory of Knowledge
All knowledge is built up from Concepts and Propositions A Theory of Knowledge
Concept Maps: A tool to represent the structure of knowledge. A tool to facilitate Learning. A Theory of Knowledge
Building a Map Start with a central question –What causes leaves to change color? List relevant concepts Sort, add, edit the concepts Arrange concepts locally according to logical relationships Promote hierarchy (I don’t follow this as much as I should) Use linking words/arrows to create propositions Promote as many connections (links) as feasible
Key idea: Each person must construct her/his own meanings for concepts and propositions from experiences over time, building her/his knowledge structure New Theory of Learning
Concept map for Paul drawn from an interview in grade two
Concept map for Paul drawn from an interview in grade twelve
Learning Denny, a six year old, is asked to draw a map that shows his understanding of 8 common concepts Concepts: Water Solid River Vapor Steam Ice Liquid Gas Evaporate Denny’s knowledge does not include a meaning for vapor
Learning We can easily teach Denny the meaning of “vapor” and a new concept, “evaporate”, by showing how they relate to his current knowledge. Concepts: Water Solid River Vapor Steam Ice Liquid Gas Evaporate
“Expert” concept maps can “scaffold” learning. Internet and other resources can be attached creating a knowledge model.
“Expert Skeleton” concept maps can be prepared to aid study
Sample of concept maps that might be built using the “skeleton”
Uses for Concept Maps What did the Novak article indicate as possible uses? (let’s list some of these)
Cognitive Learning? How might your own map about a topic differ from a second grader’s? –# concepts included –# links –Differing degrees of hierarchy invoked
Let us try to map Why do leaves turn colors? What concepts are important here, do you think? (I’ll list them on board). Let’s shoot for 10. Your group should build a map using our map construction method.