Presentation on theme: "Instrument Ground Training Module 5"— Presentation transcript:
1 Instrument Ground Training Module 5 Randy Schoephoerster
2 Agenda Airports, ATC and Airspace Runway Markings Airport Signs VASI’s PAPI’sWake TurbulenceCollision AvoidanceIFR Flight PlanningATC Clearances and Communication ProceduresRadio FailureAirspace
3 CAUTION…………………..The sole purpose of this class is to expedite your passing the FAA knowledge test. With that said, all extra material not directly tested on the FAA knowledge test is omitted, even though much more information and knowledge is necessary to fly safely. Consult the FAR/AIM (CFR) and other FAA Handbooks for further information along with a Flight Instruction course.Instrument Knowledge Test is good for 24 calendar months FAA-G d
4 CFR 61.65 (d) Instrument Practical Test Requirements (d) Aeronautical experience for the instrument-airplane rating. A person who applies for an instrument-airplane rating must have logged:(1) Fifty hours of cross country flight time as pilot in command, of which 10 hours must have been in an airplane; and(2) Forty hours of actual or simulated instrument time in the areas of operation listed in paragraph (c) of this section, of which 15 hours must have been received from an authorized instructor who holds an instrument-airplane rating, and the instrument time includes:(i) Three hours of instrument flight training from an authorized instructor in an airplane that is appropriate to the instrument-airplane rating within 2 calendar months before the date of the practical test; and(ii) Instrument flight training on cross country flight procedures, including one cross country flight in an airplane with an authorized instructor, that is performed under instrument flight rules, when a flight plan has been filed with an air traffic control facility, and that involves—(A) A flight of 250 nautical miles along airways or by directed routing from an air traffic control facility;(B) An instrument approach at each airport; and(C) Three different kinds of approaches with the use of navigation systems.
5 Precision Instrument Runway Markings Distance A1,000ft from runway threshold to the fixed distance markerDistance B500ft from the runway threshold to the touchdown zone marker is 500ftDistance C500ft from the beginning of the touchdown zone marker to the beginning of the fixed distance marker
6 Displaced ThresholdThe paved area before the displaced threshold is available forTaxiingLanding rollout andTakeoffCannot be used for landing
7 Displaced ThresholdWhite arrows are located along the centerline in the area between the beginning of the runway and displaced threshold. White arrow heads are located across the width of the runway just prior to the threshold bar.
8 Displaced Threshold at Night Approach end of the runway is on the rightTaxiing and takeoff are permitted toward the green threshold lights.
9 Airport Signs Mandatory Instruction Signs Red Background with white letteringRunway approach area holding position signsRunway holding position markings have four yellow lines, two solid and two dashed linesIdentify where an aircraft is to hold short of the runway
10 ILS Critical Area Boundary Sign Identifies the edge of the ILS critical areaWhen an ILS is in use, aircraft must hold short to prevent blocking or interfering with the ILS glide slope antenna installed at the airport
11 Direction SignsDirection signs consist of black lettering on yellow backgroundDestination (name) and direction of taxiways leading out of an intersection
12 VASI Visual Approach Slope Indicator A system of lights that provide visual descent information during approach to a runwayThe visual glide path of the VASI provides safe obstruction clearance within plus or minus 10° of the extended runway centerline and to 4 NM from the runway threshold.Glide slope is normally 3 degreesRed over White means you are alrightRed over Red means you are dead
13 3 Light Bar VASI Provide a lower and a higher glide path The 3 bar VASI provides two visual glide paths (an upper and a lower). The upper glide path, provided by the middle and far bar, is normally ¼° higher than the lower glide path and constitute a 2 bar VASI.High glide path is for high cockpit aircraft.Usually 3.25 degreesLower glide path whenNear bar is white and far bars are redHigher glide path whenNear bars are white, far bar is red
14 Tri Color VASIA tri-color VASI normally consists of a single light unit projecting a three-color visual approach path into the final approach areaRed: Below glide pathGreen: On glide pathAmber: Above glide pathNot very accurate
15 PAPI Precision Approach Path Indicator Single row On glide path is two white on left, two red on right
16 Wake Turbulence Greatest Vortex occurs when Worst wind condition Heavy CleanSlow AircraftDuring takeoffWorst wind conditionLight crosswind of 3-7 kts results in the upwind vortex tending to remain over the runway
17 Collision AvoidanceUse the centerline of the airway to avoid other aircraft when in VFR conditionsUse gentle banks left and right during climbs and descents in VFR conditions to permit continual scanningWhen in VFR, the pilot must assume the responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft, regardless of whether operating under IFR clearance
18 IFR Flight Planning Information Pilot should receive a preflight briefing from Flight Service Station (FSS)Weather advisoriesNotices about en route airportsNotices about Navigational aidsNotamsNOTAMS(D): Distant, Navigational facilities and public use airportsNOTAMS(L): Local, Taxiway closures, equipment crossing runways, airport light outages that do not affect instrument approach criteriaNOTAMS FDC: Updates to approach procedures, charts and flight restrictionsBest Sources of airport conditions areAFDNOTAMS (L)NOTAMS (D)Airport BeaconOn during the day typically indicates IFR weather conditions
19 IFR Flight Plan Composite flight plan (part VFR, part IFR) Check both VFR and IFR in block 1When transitioning from VFR to IFR, contact closest FSS to close the VFR portion and request ATC IFR clearanceAircraft Type: A slash followed by a letter indicating combinations ofUseable transponderDMENavigation equipmentMultiple altitudes: Enter only the first leg altitudeTime en route is to the first landing pointFuel-On-Board Time: Useable fuelIFR flight plans can be cancelled only if you are flying in VFR conditions outside class A airspace
20 IFR Flights Pilot must initiate IFR flight plan cancellation By radio while airborne if conditions are VFRBy radio or telephone as soon as the aircraft is on the ground
21 Instrument Ground Training Module 5 Randy Schoephoerster