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AF 202 Airport Operations.

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Presentation on theme: "AF 202 Airport Operations."— Presentation transcript:

1 AF 202 Airport Operations

2 Objectives Review Airport layout and visual aids Airport operations
Interception Procedures

3 Airport Layouts and Visual Aids

4 Taxiway Markings Yellow centerline
Double yellow edge marking when edge is not easily defined Double dashed yellow edge marking when adjoining pavement is intended for aircraft (i.e. ramp)

5 Taxiway Markings Enhanced Centerline
No more than 150 feet from hold short line

6 Hold Short Runway Hold Short Line ILS Hold Short Line

7 Hold Short Hold short of runway approach

8 Taxiway Lighting Edge Lights – Steady Blue
Centerline Lights – Steady Green Clearance Bar Lights – 3 Steady Yellow Can be located at taxiway Intersections

9 Taxiway Lighting Runway Guard Lights – Yellow
Alternating lights next to taxiway Row of in ground lights Stop Bar Lights – Steady Red Used in low visibility In pavement row of lights Used to confirm ATC clearance


11 Runway Markings Runway Designators Runway Centerline
Printed magnetic direction ‘L’ – Left ‘R’ – Right ‘C’ – Center Runway Centerline Runway Aiming point 2 broad stripes 1000 ft from threshold

12 Runway Markings Touchdown Zone Markers Threshold Markers
Marked every 500 feet Threshold Markers 8 lines or dependent on runway width

13 Runway Markings Types of Runways

14 Runway Markings Visual and Non-Precision

15 Runway Markings Precision Runway

16 Runway Markings Relocated Threshold Can NOT land or takeoff

17 Runway Markings Displaced Threshold Can takeoff Can NOT land

18 Runway Markings Blast Pad

19 Runway Markings Combo Deal

20 Runway Markings Closed

21 Runway Lighting Runway Centerline (RCLS) – White
Touchdown Zone (TDZL) – White 2 rows 100 feet past threshold to 3,000 feet Taxiway Lead Off/On – Alternating green and yellow

22 Runway Lighting Land and Hold Short – Flashing white
Row of lights Runway End Identifier (REIL) – Flashing white Runway Edge – White, yellow, red, green Yellow is the last 2,000 ft or half (shortest) Red on end of runway, green on approach

23 Runway Lighting Runway Lighting Intensity
HIRL – High Intensity Runway Lighting MIRL – Medium Intensity Runway Lighting LIRL – Low Intensity Runway Lighting

24 Runway Lighting Approach Lights

25 Runway Lights (VASI variations)

26 Runway Lighting PAPI and tri-colored VASI

27 Runway Lighting Runway Status Light (RWSL) Runway Entrance Lights
Takeoff Hold Lights Final Approach Runway Occupancy signal Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) flashes if runway is occupied

28 Runway Lighting

29 Other Markings Runway Holding Position
Holding Position (Beginning of Runway)

30 Other Markings Holding Position for Approach Area ILS Holding Area

31 Other Markings Position (Location) markings
Direction (Destination) Markings

32 Other Markings Runway Distance Remaining Ground Receiver Checkpoint

33 Other Markings

34 Airport Beacons White/Green – Civilian Airport White/Yellow – Seaport
White/White/Green – Military White/Yellow/Green - Heliport

35 Airport Operations

36 Land And Hold Short Controller can clear a pilot for LAHSO when there is an intersecting runway Pilot must determine if there is enough Available Runway Distance Pilot in Command has final authority to accept clearance (cannot be forced)


38 Wake Turbulence Large Aircraft generate large wingtip vortices
Vortex generation is governed by weight, speed and shape of wing Heavy, slow, and clean configuration gives the greatest vortex strength

39 Wake Turbulence Small aircraft must be separated from large and heavy aircraft by 3 minutes 3 minute separate rule does not apply Parallel runway father than 2500 ft When departure point is within 500 ft When PIC waivers the rule 3 minute rule cannot be waived if behind a heavy aircraft

40 Wake Turbulence Land/Takeoff before the rotation point of an airplane that just took off Land/Takeoff after the touchdown point of an airplane that just landed

41 Unexpected Maneuvers ATC services is based on observed or known traffic Controllers establish sequence and spacing Controllers can anticipate minor maneuvers like ‘S’ turns Controllers cannot anticipate 360 turns Must request or be asked by ATC

42 Intersection Takeoffs
Pilots are expected to taxi to the beginning of the runway Pilot can request intersection takeoff

43 ATC Light Signals

44 Special VFR Must be done in controlled airspace only
Clearance must be obtained from ATC when in class B, C, D airports Clearance must be obtained from nearest tower, FSS, or center when in class E airport

45 Special VFR Must be requested by pilot Weather Requirements At night
Visibility of at least 1 statute mile Remain clear of clouds At night Pilot and aircraft must be IFR certified

46 Surveillance Environment
Surveillance is available at class B, C and D TRSA (Terminal Radar Service Area) Initial contact is made with approach control Altitude should be reported along with position

47 Surveillance Environment
Upon departing, initial contact is often made with Clearance Delivery Type aircraft, location on field, course heading, requested altitude, ATIS. Ground is simply contacted for taxi clearance After tower you will be transferred to departure

48 Surveillance Environment
A Mode C transponder is required for most surveillance environments Mode C is altitude encoding which means the controller can see your altitude Why is the altitude off in the 172R transponder?

49 Surveillance Environment

50 Surveillance Equipment
Radar Radio waves bounce off targets Has limitations and so the pilot is still required to ‘see and avoid’ Waves can be bent by temperature inversions Line of sight only Low altitude aircraft are harder to see

51 ATC Radar Beacon System (ATCRSB)
Like a “secondary” radar system Reinforces primary radar and aids in rapid target identification Includes interrogator, transponder, and radarscope

52 Surveillance Equipment
ASR – Surveillance Radar Often used for non-precision radar appraoches PAR – Precision Approach Radar Used for precision radar approaches Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ADSE) Provides ground radar surveillance Some transponders have ground mode

53 Interception Procedures
“Identification intercepts during peacetime operations are vastly different than those conducted under increased states of readiness.” Here are the peacetime procedures…

54 Interception Procedures

55 Interception Procedures

56 Interception Procedures
If intercepted contact air traffic control immediately or guard 121.5 “If the U.S. military intercepts an aircraft and flares are dispensed in the area of that aircraft, aviators will pay strict attention!!!!!!”

57 Interception Procedures
Phase One Aircraft will be approached from the stern Two aircraft will attempt identification Phase Two Intercepted aircraft should expect to visually acquire the lead interceptor They will get closer to read your tail number

58 Interception Procedures
Phase 3 After identification, flight leader will turn away followed by wingman

59 Interception Procedures

60 Interception Procedures

61 Interception Procedures

62 Peace out

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