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Instrument Ground Training Module 4 & 5

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1 Instrument Ground Training Module 4 & 5
Randy Schoephoerster

2 Agenda Airports, ATC and Airspace IFR Flight Planning
ATC Clearances and Communication Procedures Radio Failure Airspace Video on Lost Communications Video on FAR’s Test Questions on FAR’s

3 CAUTION………………….. The sole purpose of this class is to expedite your passing the FAA knowledge test. With that said, all extra material not directly tested on the FAA knowledge test is omitted, even though much more information and knowledge is necessary to fly safely. Consult the FAR/AIM (CFR) and other FAA Handbooks for further information along with a Flight Instruction course. Instrument Knowledge Test is good for 24 calendar months FAA-G d

4 ATC Communication Procedures
If you are taking off from an intersection Pilot must state position on the airport when calling the tower for takeoff Maintain continuous contact with ATC Radio frequency changes are made at the direction of ATC Climbing or Descending per ATC clearance Use the optimum rate (500ft to 1500fpm) It is okay to use cruise climb rather than maximum angle If you cannot climb at least 500fpm, notify ATC Lead your turns so that you remain in the center of the airway

5 Pilot Reporting to ATC At all times when
Inability to climb at least 500fpm Change in avg true airspeed at cruising altitude from your flight plan by 5% or 10kts. Change from assigned altitude Missed approach Departure from any assigned holding point The time and altitude when reaching holding fix or clearance limit Loss of communication or navigation capability Anything that affects safety of flight

6 ATC When not in Radar Contact
Notify ATC when Departure from final approach fix inbound on final approach Correction of an estimate that is more than 3 min in error Passage over the following points. Compulsory reporting points as marked by solid black triangles on en route charts Each fix used in the flight plan not flown on radials or courses of airways our routes

7 Rules and Definitions Mode C transponder must be ON and set to Mode C (Altitude reporting) ATC sees only the airplane’s direction of travel, not the airplane heading Adjust traffic reports for any wind correction you are holding Radar contact: ATC has identified your aircraft and they will follow you on the radar until terminated by the controller Resume own navigation: You are under ATC radar surveillance but under your own navigation so no more vectors will be given Radar Service Terminated: ATC no longer sees you on radar and the pilot must resume position reports at compulsory reporting points Class C: IFR flights will receive traffic separation from all aircraft ATC is talking to When flying practice approaches, the flight does not have a clearance, therefore, you must maintain VFR conditions

8 Rules and Definitions Question any assigned altitude or heading believed to be incorrect. Pilot has the ultimate responsibility for safe flight. When ATC provides an airspeed, the pilot is expected to maintain the speed +/-10Kts IAS (indicated airspeed) Class D: If you cancel 10 mi from your destination airport, you must establish communications with the tower prior to entering class D Airports with a part time tower and FSS FSS provides advisory data on runways, weather, traffic patterns, etc If ATC is not operating, you must cancel your own flight plan by notifying FSS Minimum Fuel is an advisory to ATC that indicates an emergency situation is possible should any undue delay occur

9 Radio Communication Failure
ATC assumes pilot is operating in accordance with CFR You should leave a holding pattern at the EFC (expected further clearance) time If in VFR, continue your flight under VFR and land as soon as practical If in IFR, continue on the route specified in your clearance (for each leg) at the highest of Last assigned altitude Expected altitude per ATC MEA (minimum en route altitude) Set transponder to 7600

10 Lost Radio Communications
VFR Conditions Squawk 7600 Stay in VMC (Visual Meteorlogical Conditions) Land and Call ATC/FSS IFR Route: Follow AVE F A: Last Assigned V: Vectored E: Expected F: Filed Whichever was received last Altitude: Follow MEA MEA Expected Assigned Whichever is highest 7600 AVE F MEA

11 Navigation Radio Failure
DME fails above FL 240 (24,000ft), Continue flight to next airport of intended landing so repairs can be made Must immediately report to ATC the loss of VOR, ADF, TACAN receiver capability Partial loss of ILS receiver Any impairment of radio communications capability.

12 Airspace En Route Low-Altitude Charts show the limits of controlled airspace, military training routes, and special use airspace Does not include Class A airspace ATC does not control air traffic in Class G airspace Class E airspace Used to transition flights between the terminal area and en route flight If an airport has an instrument approach, Class G only goes up to 700ftAGL, then it is Class E (unless designated that Class E extends from the surface) Airways extend upward from 1200ft AGL and are 4NM wide from centerline MOA (Military Operations Area): Purpose is to separate military training activities from IFR traffic

13 Federal Airways Run from VOR to VOR Are Class E airspace
Extend upward from 1200ft AGL to 17,999 MSL 4NM on either side of the centerline or 8NM in width

14 Airspace Class G: Maximum altitude is 14,500ft MSL except in airspace less than 1,500ft AGL (ie: mountainous areas) Normally, class B extends up to 10,000ft MSL Class D airspace has a radius of 4NM Normally, Class D airspace extends up to 2,500ft AGL Class C airspace: Must have two way radio and transponder with Mode C (Altitude reporting)

15 3.9 Class D Airspace and Airport Advisory Area
Class D airspace is normally the airspace up to 2,500ft above the surface of the airport The lateral dimensions of Class D airspace are based on the instrument procedures for the controlled airspace is established Two-way radio communication with the control tower is required for landings and takeoffs at all tower-controlled airports, regardless of weather conditions 2,500ft

16 3.10 Class C Airspace The vertical limit of Class C airspace above the primary airport is normally 1200ft AGL 3,000ft AGL 4,000ft AGL C. 4,000ft AGL 4,000ft

17 Agenda Airports, ATC and Airspace IFR Flight Planning
ATC Clearances and Communication Procedures Radio Failure Airspace Video on Lost Communications Video on FAR’s Test Questions on FAR’s

18 Instrument Ground Training Module 4 & 5
Randy Schoephoerster

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