Presentation on theme: "The Controversies of AGROFUELS Presentation by: Vinicius Santos & Mike Acton."— Presentation transcript:
The Controversies of AGROFUELS Presentation by: Vinicius Santos & Mike Acton
7 major controversies Agrofuels ignore other alternatives Competition with land and food supply Corporation takeover Exploitation of developing countries Falsified reduction of CO2 emissions Risks to surrounding biodiversity Violation of human rights
Biofuel or Agrofuel? Biofuels: relate to all biofuels no matter their origin or from what product they were produced from (whether it be a crop product or animal waste). Agrofuels are are a type of biofuel that consists of crops and/or trees (maize, sugar cane or oil palm for example) that are grown on a large scale resembling a monoculture
Agrofuels ignore other alternatives (transportation) Transportation is the biggest aid to climate change Agrofuels are somewhat of a ‘scapegoat’ for researching and developing alternatives
Agrofuels ignore other alternatives Making automobiles more fuel efficient Decreasing travel time and distance of product distribution/development Slowing the growth of the transportation sector in general
Competition with land and food supply Food and fuel competing for the same land World food reserves are falling Drastic rise in food prices Food vs. Fuel battle
Corporation takeover Large TNCs see the opportunity for an expansion in an already booming exploitative business Agricultural/petroleum/car companies are all heavy investors Agreements are formed between these corporations to allow for further benefits and profits.
Exploitation of developing countries Developing supplies the developed Large scale investors ‘force’ local producers into production Switch from crops for food to crops for fuel leads to increased dependency
Falsified reduction of CO2 emissions Chain of production of biofuels. –Removal of the original cover of soil; –Production and use of chemical fertilizers; –Chemical crop protection; –Transportation of all raw materials and final products. Emissions from the usage of biofuels.
EMISSIONS FROM THE PRODUCTION PROCESS BURNING OF A SUGARCANE PLANTATION BEFORE THE HARVESTING PROCESS STARTS.
INDIRECT EMISSIONS The expansion of the plantations and risks of “pushing” moves of other crops. PASTURES FOR CATTLE EXPANSION ON AMAZON RAINFOREST SOY PLANTATION ON DEFRORESTED AMAZON FIELD
INDIRECT EMISSIONS CERRADO FIELD BURNT TO BECOME A SOY FIELD
Risks to surrounding biodiversities The sugarcane causes these impacts: Biodiversity loss caused by deforestation and establishment of monoculture; Contaminations of surface and groundwater and soil due excessive using of chemical fertilizers, lime minerals, pesticides and herbicides; Soil compaction due to traffic of heavy machinery during planting and harvesting; Siltation of water sources due to erosions in exploited areas; Soot and greenhouse gases from burning straw in the open air during the harvesting period; Damage to flora and fauna, caused by wildfires; Intense consumption of diesel oil on the steps of planting, harvesting and transport; Concentration of land and sub-human conditions of work of the cane cutters. SOURCE: EMBRAPA-BRAZIL
Violation of Human Rights Most of the labour used to harvest sugarcane is manual. These workers receive wages according to productivity in the sugarcane fields. The working conditions at harvest are mostly poor. Under pressure to reduce then eliminate the burning of the plantations, many states are providing laws and projects to achieve 100% of harvest without burning. This equates to the mechanization of this process.
The education level of these workers eventually becomes a hindrance to adaptation to new features of the sugarcane industry. Structural problems of basic education will promote further exclusion of these workers. Negative predictions lead to believe that new waves of migration to cities will further raise the number of people marginalized by poverty.