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- Biofuels: Issues at stake PFSA, Namur, 21/12/06.

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Presentation on theme: "- Biofuels: Issues at stake PFSA, Namur, 21/12/06."— Presentation transcript:

1 - Biofuels: Issues at stake PFSA, Namur, 21/12/06


3 Biofuels Liquid and gaseous fuels derived from biological material –Sugar/cellulose  ethanol (corn, sugar cane,...) –Oil  biodiesel (rapeseed, soy, oil palm,...) –Pure oil Driver : liquid fuel for transport Target Europe: –2% mixture 2005, 5,75 % mixture in 2010 (17 mln ha = 20% arable land EU)

4 Why? Arguments pro Ecological arguments: –Climate change –Air pollution Economic arguments: –Oil stocks reduction –Energy independence (corn in the US) –Alternative for farmers, also in EU –Export oportunities

5 Why not? Arguments contra Monocultures ( => related envir. damages) Introduction of GE Huge subsidies (prod. and cons. side) Affected local communities Quantity and quality of jobs created? Diverting efforts from real solutions Other biomass energy uses more efficient Extremely land consuming, conflict with other uses

6 The right bio-energy option?

7 The right biofuel option?

8 Models of agriculture

9 Brasil: 'oligarchic ethanol' vs. 'social biodiesel' Photo: Brazilian sugarcane workers (NYT-2006)

10 North/South : oportunity our threat?



13 Food or fuel? Food, feed, fuel, fibre –Increasing car use –Ambitious future targets for biofuels –Increasing meat consumption –Increasing demand for raw material for emerging bio-industry - Markets (not needs) determine crop choice –> Increasing demand for agricultural land –> Locally increasing pressure on natural high value ecosystems and food production likely –>Sustainability criteria needed –>Looking for synergies important (byproducts,..)

14 Environmental and social criteria :


16 Criteria Greenpeace ● bioenergy is used in conjunction with other measures to reduce GHG emissions, ● the energy balance of any bioenergy project is considerably positive ● bioenergy maximises the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions ● biomass from natural ecosystems is sustainably harvested. ● social conflicts are avoided, in particular, those caused by trade. ● Production and use of bioenergy should not widen social inequities, especially between developing and developed countries. ● Local needs should take priority over global trade. Trade in bioenergy must not result in negative social and environmental impacts, nor undermine food security or sovereignty. ● crops and plantations for bioenergy are produced within the framework of sustainable agriculture: ● does not cause inversion of intact ecosystems ● does not hinder food security or sovereingty ● doen't release GE organisms in the environment ● Minimises use of agrochemicals ● Does not use invasive species ● Promotes conservation of water and soil fertility

17 Criteria in the Belgian law B


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