Independent Clause Independent clauses (also called the main clause). They contain a subject and express a complete thought. Every sentence has at least ONE independent clause. They can stand alone. Example: The girl skipped. Subject Verb
Independent Clause Independent clauses DO NOT start with a relative pronoun or a subordinating conjunction. Relative pronouns and subordinating conjunctions begin dependent clauses.
Dependent clauses Dependent clauses are also called subordinate clauses and they can’t stand alone. These are the ones that start with relative pronouns or subordinating conjunctions. They only make sense when attached to the main clause. Example: After she presented her paper. While the group studied. Subject Verb
What are common relative pronouns? Common relative pronouns (they start dependent clauses adjective or adverb) That Which Who Whom Whose
Common subordinating conjunctions? After Sure Before While Because Although So That If When Whenever As Even though Until Unless As if Although As if Since Where Whenever While Though
How to combine independent clauses When combining 2 independent clauses with a coordinating conjunction a comma is needed before the coordinating conjunction. Remember FANBOYS For, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
Example Jim Studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, BUT it was hard to concentrate because of the noise.
Adverb Dependent Clauses These usually start with a subordinating conjunction (check your list). They act like an adverb. The subordinating conjunction always introduces the clause It will appear in one of two places. It can begin the sentence OR In the middle – connecting the independent clause to the subordinating clause.
Examples Put the luggage where you find an empty spot. The game will begin after we sing the National Anthem. Amy spoke as if she were very serious. I am tired because I have been working all day.
Adverb clauses Adverb clauses tell how, when, where, why, or under what conditions. They describe the verb.
Adverb clauses You usually do not use a comma before an adverb clause. When the adverb clause introduces the sentence, however, you do use a comma after the adverb clause.
Adjective dependent clause Starts with a relative pronoun. It is also usually the subject of the clause. They can also begin with where or when. They act like an adjective
Adjective clauses stars that are shining bright and glowing Adjective clause. the country where I was born
Adjective Dependent Clause The professor whom I had asked for help met with me before class.