What is a Clause? A clause is a group of words that contain both a: –subject and a –verb S V Ex. we walked down the street S V Ex. after the rain had started
Practicing Clauses On a separate sheet of paper, number from one to five. Write C if the group of words is a clause. Write F if it is not. 1. walking down the street 2. I saw a plan in the sky 3. Mary and Bob are friends 4. when the season started 5. the girl with the brown hair
Practicing Clauses Check your answers –1. F – This is a fragment. “Walking” is the verb, but there is no subject. –2. C – This is a clause. “I” is a subject. “Saw” is a verb. –3. C – This is a clause. “Mary” is a subject. “Bob” is also a subject. “Are” is the verb. –4. C – This is a clause. “Season” is the subject. “Started” is the verb. –5. F – This is a fragment. “Girl” is the subject, but there is no verb.
What is an Independent Clause? An independent clause is a sentence. It can stand alone and tells a complete thought. S V –Ex. Mary threw the ball. V S –Ex. Underneath the book was my pencil.
What is a Subordinate Clause? A subordinate clause is NOT a complete sentence. Subordinate clauses begin with words that are called relative pronouns or subordinate conjunctions. This beginning word of the clause is what causes this group of words to not be a complete sentence. If the opening word was removed, then it would be an independent clause. A subordinate clause can not stand alone. It must have an independent clause with it to make it a complete sentence.
What is a Relative Subordinate Clause? Subordinate clauses that begin with relative pronouns work like adjectives. They describe a noun or pronoun in the independent clause. Subordinate clauses that begin with relative pronouns are called relative clauses. They describe a noun or pronoun. Relative clauses typically come directly after the noun or pronoun that they follow. That is why a relative clause can never begin a sentence.
What is a Relative Subordinate Clause? The relative pronouns are: who, whom, whose, which, that (Sometimes “when,” “where,” and “since” can also be used.) These words start a subordinate clause called a relative clause. They are often in the middle or end of a sentence. –Ex. who walked down the street subordinate clause (The man who walked down the street was tall.) –Ex. that I am know from class subordinate clause (The boy that I am know from class won the award.)
What is a Relative Subordinate Clause? Some of the relative pronouns that start relative clauses can also be used to begin questions. How can you tell the difference? If the clause is a question, the pronoun will typically be at the beginning of the sentence. If it is starting a relative clause, it can not be placed there. If the clause is a question, there will be a question mark at the end of the sentence. If it is starting a relative clause, it most likely will not. If the pronoun is used to begin a relative clause, there will have to be an independent clause in the sentence also. Ex. Who will attend the party? (At the beginning, question mark, one clause…….QUESTION!) Ex. The people who will attend the party are my friends. (Not at the beginning, no question mark, more than one clause………RELATIVE CLAUSE!)
Finding Relative Subordinate Clauses In each sentence, locate the subordinate clause that begins with a relative pronoun. 1. The boy, whose puppy is missing, is sad. whose puppy is missing 2. I love the book that I am reading. that I am reading 3. The man to whom the letter is addressed is here. to whom the letter is addressed 4. Disney World, where I love to go, is amazing! where I love to go
What is a Subordinate Clause? The subordinate conjunctions are: after, although, as, as if, as long as, because, before, even though, if, in order that, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, while These words begin a subordinate or dependent clause. They can come anywhere in a sentence; however, if they begin the sentence, they must be followed by a comma. Subordinate clauses that begin with a subordinate conjunction work as adverbs. This means they will describe a verb, adjective, or adverb in the independent clause.
What is a Subordinate Clause? Examples of Subordinate Clauses subordinate clause –Ex. We talked to him after the game had begun. subordinate clause –Ex. Because it was storming, our game ended. Yes, a sentence can begin with the word “because!” The only way it can start that way though is if it begins with a subordinate clause and is followed by both a comma and an independent clause.
Locating Subordinate Clauses Locate the subordinate clause that begins with a subordinate conjunction. 1. Mrs. Alekson saw the spider when she entered the room. when she entered the room 2. Whenever I daydream in class, I miss important information. whenever I daydream in class 3. Mark did his homework after he came home from baseball practice. after he came home from baseball practice 4. Because Liza did not make it to practice, she could not play in the game this week. Because Liza did not make it to practice
Punctuating Subordinate Clauses If the subordinate clause comes at the beginning of the sentence, a comma must be placed after it before the independent clause. If the independent clause comes first, and the subordinate clause follows it, then no comma is needed. Ex. Because it was raining, the game was cancelled. Ex. The game was cancelled because it was raining.
Practice – Punctuating Subordinate Clauses Decide if the punctuation is correct in each sentence. 1. I love when it rains. correct 2. Although I understand I want more of an explanation. incorrect – comma needed after “understand.” 3. I yelled, so that I could be heard better. incorrect – the subordinate clause comes second
Practicing Clauses On a separate piece of paper number from one to five. Write I if the clause is independent and write S if the clause is subordinate. If it is subordinate, tell if it is an adjective or adverb clause. 1. in chorus we sang many songs 2. as if nothing had happened 3. whenever I feel like it 4. whose book I borrowed 5. following the announcements was the bell.
Practicing Clauses The answers are: –1. I – this is a complete sentence. –2. S – “as if” is a subordinate conjunction. This is an adverb clause. –3. S – “whenever” is a subordinate conjunction. This is an adverb clause. –4. S – “whose” is a relative pronoun. This is an adjective clause. –5. I – This is a complete sentence.
Enrichment – Writing Better Sentences Two sentences can be combined by turning one independent clause into a subordinate one. This makes a different kind of sentence called a complex sentence. Using a variety of types of sentences in one’s writing makes writing stronger. Using subordinate clauses makes connections between ideas.
Enrichment – Writing Better Sentences Ex. I like cats. They are entertaining. Better: I like cats because they are entertaining. Ex. The man is very tall. He is an accountant. Better: The man, who is very tall, is an accountant. Ex. Watching television is boring right now. All of the shows are repeats. Better: Since all of the television shows are repeats, watching television is boring right now.
This completes the review of clauses. Additional review can be done in the review folders housed in 106 and the library.