2 The Differences between group and Team Group is the basic building block of orgEx: Just as the effective university is depending on the performance of the various groups in the university (departments).“A group is more than its parts” Sometimes accomplish thing that no one individual could accomplish working alone
3 What is a TeamA set of two or more people who interact with each other to achieve certain goals or to meet certain needs.
4 One way to classify work group (WG) is by whether: Formal or Informal Formal WG: A group established by management to help the org achieve its goals.Informal WG: A group that emerges naturally when individual perceives that membership in a group will help them achieve their goals or needs.
5 Types of WGs Formal Informal O.R.G Task force Team Friendship group Command groupTask forceTeamSelf-managed TeamFriendship groupInterest group
6 Formal WGA command group is a formal work group consisting of subordinates who report to the same supervisor/leaders. (Reporting-based relationship: presented on org chart)A task force is a formal work group consisting of people who come together to accomplish a specific goal. (then disband sometimes not)A team is a formal group consisting of people who work intensely together to achieve a common group goal. (intense interaction and strong commitment to goals)
7 A self-managed team: A formal work group consisting of people who are jointly responsible for ensuring that the team accomplished its goals and who lead themselves. (members assigned to lead)
8 Informal WGFriendship group: IWG consisting of people who enjoy each other’s company and socialize with each other on and off the job.Interest Group: IWG consisting of people who come together because they have common goal or objective related to their membership.
9 Tuckman’s Five Stage: Model of Group Development 5.Adjourning4.Performing3.Norming2.Storming1.Forming
10 Tuckman’s Five Stage: Model of Group Development Group members try to get to know each other and establish a common understanding.1.Forming2.Storming
11 Tuckman’s Five Stage: Model of Group Development Group is in conflict, members resist being controlled by the group, and disagreements arise concerning leadership in the group.1.Forming2.Storming3.Norming
12 Tuckman’s Five Stage: Model of Group Development Group members develop close ties, feelings of friendship and camaraderie abound, and group members share a common purpose.1.Forming2.Storming3.Norming4.Performing
13 Tuckman’s Five Stage: Model of Group Development Group members work toward achieving their goals.1.Forming2.Storming3.Norming4.Performing5.Adjourning
14 Tuckman’s Five Stage: Model of Group Development The group disbands once its goals have been achieved.1.Forming2.Storming3.Norming4.Performing5.Adjourning
15 Work Group Characteristics Group sizeGroup compositionGroup statusGroup functionGroup efficacySocial facilitation
16 1.How large should a group be? Benefits of Small GroupsBenefits of Large GroupsMore resourcesDivision of laborRegular interactionEase of sharing infoRecognition of individualcontributions to groupStrong identification withgroupHigher group satisfaction
17 2. Group CompositionHomogeneous Group: A group in which member have many characteristics in common. ( Similarity )Heterogeneous Group: A group in which member have few characteristics in common. (Diversity)Benefits of Homogeneous GBenefits of Heterogeneous GDiversity of views representedHigh performanceVariety of resourcesCollegiality amongstgroup membersInformation sharingLow levels of conflictFew coordinationproblems
18 3. Group Status 4. Group Function The implicitly agreed upon, perceived importance for the organization as a whole of what a group does.The more important task the group performs, the higher status group receives4. Group FunctionThe work that a group performs as its contribution to the accomplishment of organizational goals.
19 How Groups Control Their Members: Roles and Rule, Norms (Mechanisms) Role: A set of behaviors or tasks a person is expected to perform by virtue of holding a position in a group or organization.Rule: Written “Standard Operating Procedure” specifying behavior required and forbidden.Norm: Informal rules of conduct
20 How Can Groups Respond to Deviants? Attempt to change deviantExpel deviantChange norm
21 How to Ensure the Group Norms are Functional for Organization Remember:Sometime group norms are well functioning for only group itself, but dysfunctional for the organization.How can manager ensure that group norms are functional and aligned with those of organization?Make sure that members are rewarded when the organization achieve its goals.The outcomes that members receive should be based on the group’s levels of performance.Make sure that the group goals has to be consistent with organizational goals.
22 Problems in Group Motivation and Performance Social loafing? The tendency of individuals to exert less effort when they work in a group that when they work alone,Causes of Social Loafing?(1) Lack of connection between inputs and outcomes or rewards(2) Perception that individual efforts are unnecessary or unimportant,
23 Problems in Group Motivation and Performance Reducing Social Loafing?Make individual contributions identifiableMake individuals feel that they are making valuable contributions to a groupKeep the group as small as possiblework performed by one member of a group affects what other members do,
24 Group Cohesiveness? The attractiveness of a group to its membersSigns of Cohesiveness?Low cohesiveness:Information flows slowly; group has little influence; group tends not to achieve its goalsModerate cohesiveness:Group members work well together; there is good communication and participation; group is able to influence its members’ behavior; group tends to achieve its goalsVery high cohesiveness:Group members socialize excessively; high level of conformity; group achieves its goals at expense of other groups
25 Consequences Advantages Potential Disadvantages Consequences of High Cohesiveness When Group Goals Are Aligned with Organizational GoalsConsequencesA high level ofparticipation andcommunicationwithin the groupconformity to groupnormsGroup goalaccomplishmentAdvantagesGroup members likely toperform behaviors necessaryfor group and organization toachieve goals, informationflows quickly in the group, andturnover may be relatively lowThe group is able to control itsmembers’ behavior to achievegroup goalsThe group achieves its goalsand is effectiveGroup members may wastetime socializing on the joband chatting about non-workmattersExcessive conformity within thegroup may result in resistance tochange and failure to discarddysfunctional normsGroup members may notcooperate with other groupsas much as they shouldPotentialDisadvantages
26 Consequences Disadvantages Disadvantages of High Cohesiveness When Group Goals are Not Aligned with Organizational GoalsConsequencesA high level of participationand communicationwithin the groupA high level ofconformity to groupnormsGroup goalaccomplishmentGroup members may wastetime socializing on the joband chatting about non-workmattersGroup members behave in ways that aredysfunctional for the organizationThe group achieves its goals at the expense oforganizational goalsDisadvantages
27 Four types of groups that are especially important in many organization include: (1) Top Management Team(2) Self-Managed Work Teams(3) Research and Development Teams(4) Virtual Teams
28 Important Organizational Groups Top Management TeamThe team of managers who report to the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and determine what an organization is trying to accomplish and develop plans for goal attainment,Self-Managed Work TeamsTeam members have the autonomy to lead and manage themselves and determine how the team will perform its tasks? Self-managed teams can be found at all levels of an organization,Research and Development TeamsA team that is formed to develop new products, may be cross-functional and is often used in high-tech industries,Virtual TeamsA team in which a significant amount of communication and interaction occurs electronically rather than face-to-face,Important Organizational Groups