Presentation on theme: "Exploring Management Chapter 14 Teams and Teamwork."— Presentation transcript:
1 Exploring ManagementChapter 14Teams and Teamwork
2 Chapter 14 Why is it important to understand teams and teamwork? What are the building blocks of successful teamwork?How can managers create and lead high-performance teams?Teams are an important part of management theory and practice.
3 Teams often suffer from common performance problems 14.1 Teams and TeamworkTeams offer synergy and other benefits to organizations and their membersTeams often suffer from common performance problemsOrganizations are networks of formal teams and informal groupsMuch research shows that teamwork skills are highly valued by managers.
4 14.1 CONTINUED Teams and Teamwork Organizations use committees, task forces, and cross functional teamsVirtual teams are increasingly common in organizationsSelf-managing teams are a form of job enrichment for groupsEmployees enjoy working in a high performing, cohesive team.
5 TEAMS AND TEAMWORK Teamwork Benefits collection of people with complementary skills who work together to accomplish shared goals while holding each other mutually accountable for performance resultsMany tasks are beyond the capabilities of one person alone. Team support is increasingly necessary.
6 TEAMS AND TEAMWORK Teamwork Benefits SynergyThe creation of a whole that exceeds the sum of its partsWorking together helps us to understand the strengths of teammates and creates synergy. Synergy is essential to high performance teams not only in sports, but for hospitals, firefighters, NASCAR teams and other work groups.
7 TEAMS AND TEAMWORK Teamwork Problems Social loafingThe tendency of some people to avoid responsibility by free-riding in groupsTo prevent social loafingKeep groups smallMake task assignments interestingSocial loafing is evidence of a lack of commitment on the part of a team member.
8 TEAMS AND TEAMWORK Teamwork Problems More teamwork performance problemsPersonality conflictsDifferences in work stylesCompeting goal and visionsOverly ambitious agendasPoorly defined problemsConflicts with other work deadlines or personal prioritiesBad experiences with teams in the pastTeam members won’t often tell you the reason for their lack of commitment.
9 TEAMS AND TEAMWORK Formal and Informal Formal teamsOfficially recognized and supported by the organizationDepartmentWork unitsTeamsDivisionsMembers of formal teams usually have assigned roles which are often listed in a job description.
10 TEAMS AND TEAMWORK Formal and Informal Informal groupsGrow spontaneously from co-worker relationshipsInterest groupsFriendship groupsSupport groupsThere are probably as many informal groups in an organization as there are formal groups.
11 TEAMS AND TEAMWORK Types of Teams Committeebrings together people outside of their daily job assignments to work in a small team for a specific purpose; the task agenda is specific and ongoingProject teams or task forcesbring together people from various parts of the organization to work on common problemsCross-functional teamhas members from different functional unitsEmployee-involvement teamhas members who meet on a regular basis to apply their expertise to continuous improvementQuality circleis a group of workers that meets regularly to discuss and plan specific ways to improve work qualityCross functional teams used to be the domain of large companies with large projects. Now they are used extensively in organizations of all sizes.A project team can be a form of a cross-functional team if the team members come from different functional units as they often do.Quality circle teams originated in Japan. Interesting enough, in was an American named Deming that introduced the concept to the Japanese
12 TEAMS AND TEAMWORK Types of Teams Virtual teamsUse technology to work together from different locationsVideoconferencing is becoming increasingly affordable and accessible. It’s a valuable tool as organizations become more global, use more independent contractors and when business travel becomes expensive.
13 TEAMS AND TEAMWORK Types of Teams Self-managing teamsHave authority to make decisions about how they share and complete workSelf-managing teams can be a way to add job enrichment.
14 Teams need the right members and inputs to be effective 14.2 Successful TeamworkTeams need the right members and inputs to be effectiveTeams need the right processes to be effectiveTeams move through different stages of developmentUnderstanding the elements of successful teams helps managers develop high performing teams.
15 14.2 CONTINUED Successful Teamwork Team performance is affected by norms and cohesivenessTeam performance is affected by task and maintenance rolesTeam performance is affected by communication networks
16 SUCCESSFUL TEAMWORK Effective Teams Effective teams have three output goalsTask performanceMember satisfactionTeam viabilityNASCAR teams are highly trained teams with very specialized task performance.
17 SUCCESSFUL TEAMWORK Effective Teams Getting a good start by addressing each of the Inputs is very critical to team success. This is very similar to the “open systems” view of organizations.
18 SUCCESSFUL TEAMWORK Effective Teams Membership compositionMix of abilities, skills, backgrounds and experiences of the membersDiverse teamsGenerally more effectiveA manager may have very little input into the membership composition of a team, but it helps to know the strengths and weaknesses of the make up of the group.
19 SUCCESSFUL TEAMWORK Effective Teams Inputs that affect team performanceTeam sizeNature of the taskOrganizational settingTeam processThe way members work togetherFirefighters are unique groups because of the requirement that they live together at times, their extensive training, the variety of situations under which they must perform and the culture of their organization.
20 SUCCESSFUL TEAMWORK Team Development Stages of team developmentFormingteam development, one of initial task orientation and interpersonal testing.Stormingconflict over tasks and working as a teamNormingcoordination of task and operating agendasPerformingEffective teamwork and focused task performance.AdjourningCompletion of task, team may disbandNot all teams adjourn. In the case of project teams, a good team may pick up another project.
21 SUCCESSFUL TEAMWORK Performance Performance is affected by norms and cohesivenessNormsExpected behaviorsCohesivenessHow committed team members areTeam norms are likely to established by team leaders or team members depending on the cohesiveness of the team.Sports teams frequently have many formal norms or expectations.
22 SUCCESSFUL TEAMWORK Performance Low team cohesiveness will lead to poor performance and high turnover.
23 SUCCESSFUL TEAMWORK Roles Team performance is affected by task and maintenance rolesTask activities contribute directly to the team’s purposeMaintenance activities support the emotional aspects of the team as a social systemTraining supports task activities and team building supports maintenance activities.Students may see some similarity to task and people orientation in leadership research.
24 SUCCESSFUL TEAMWORK Roles Distributed leadershipAll members are responsible for recognizing when task or maintenance activities are necessaryDisruptive behaviors cause problemsExcessive jokingAggressivenessNon-participationDistributed leadership results from a strong commitment by team members. Disruptive behaviors result from a lack of commitment, or lack of understanding how important ones’ role is. A little clowning may be good for morale. Too much is just disruptive and attention-seeking.
25 SUCCESSFUL TEAMWORK Communication Team performance is affected by use of communication networksDecentralizedAll members communicate directlyCentralizedRequires members to communicate through a central hub or center pointRestrictedSubgroups fail to communicate well, become antagonistic and restrict communicationMany organizations are moving toward more decentralized communication networks.Restricted communication may be the cause or result of an “out-group”
26 SUCCESSFUL TEAMWORK Communication Communication policies can create any of these situations via the Internet.
27 14.3 High Performance Teams Team building helps team members learn to better work togetherTeam performance is affected by use of decision-making methodsTeam performance suffers when groupthink leads to bad decisionsTeam performance benefits from good conflict management
28 HIGH PERFORMANCE TEAMS Team building Involves activities to gather and analyze data on a team and make changes to increase its effectivenessTeam building activities are helpful in increasing team communication and cohesiveness. It is an example of a maintenance activity.
29 HIGH PERFORMANCE TEAMS Team Decisions Decision makingThe process of making choices among alternative courses of actionConsensusAfter thorough discussion most team members favor one decision and other members agree to support the decisionConsensus requires a great deal of cooperation and trust.
30 HIGH PERFORMANCE TEAMS Team Decisions Group thinkTendency of members of highly cohesive teams to lose their critical evaluative capabilities and make poor decisionsGroup think is the mistaken assumption that we all agree, so there isn’t any need for critical analysis of the issue. This can result in poor decisions. Historical examples include the “Bay of Pigs” invasion, the Challenger disaster and introduction of “new Coke”.
31 HIGH PERFORMANCE TEAMS Conflict Disagreement over issues of a substance and/or an emotional antagonismSubstantive conflictDisagreements over goals, resources, rewards, policies, procedures, and job assignmentsEmotional ConflictResults from feelings of anger, distrust, dislike, fear, and resentment as well as from personality clashesConflict can be either Substantive, Emotional or both.
32 HIGH PERFORMANCE TEAMS Conflict Five ways to deal with conflictConflict can be either Substantive, Emotional or both.
33 HIGH PERFORMANCE TEAMS Conflict Conflict resolutionRemoving the substantive or emotional reasons for a conflictCollaborationInvolves working through conflict differences and solving problems so everyone winsConflict can be either Substantive, Emotional or both.