We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
supports HTML5 video
Published byOpal Merritt
Modified over 6 years ago
Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education9 Chapter Understanding Groups and Managing Work Teams Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
Copyright ©2011 Pearson EducationLearning Outcomes Define a group and describe the stages of group development Describe the major concepts of group behavior Discuss how groups are turned into effective teams Discuss contemporary issues in managing teams Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
Copyright ©2011 Pearson EducationWhat Is a Group? Group Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve specific goals A group is defined as two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve specific goals. Formal groups are work groups that are defined by the organization’s structure and have designated work assignments and specific tasks directed at accomplishing organizational goals Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
Copyright ©2011 Pearson EducationExhibit 9-1 provides some examples of formal groups Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
What Are the Stages of Group Development?Forming Stage The first stage of group development in which people join the group and then define the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership Storming Stage The second stage of group development, which is characterized by intragroup conflict The forming stage has two phases. The first occurs as people join the group. In a formal group, people join because of some work assignment. Once they’ve joined, the second phase begins: defining the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership. The storming stage is appropriately named because of the intragroup conflict. There’s conflict over who will control the group and what the group needs to be doing. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
Group Development Stages (cont.)Norming Stage The third stage of group development, which is characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness Performing Stage The fourth stage of group development, when the group is fully functional and works on the group task The norming stage is one in which close relationships develop and the group becomes cohesive. There’s now a strong sense of group identity and camaraderie. The fourth stage is performing. The group structure is in place and accepted by group members. Their energies have moved from getting to know and understand each other to working on the group’s task. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
Group Development Stages (cont.)Adjourning Stage The final stage of group development for temporary groups, during which groups prepare to disband The final stage is adjourning. In this stage, the group prepares to disband. Attention is focused on wrapping up activities instead of task performance Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
What Are the Major Concepts of Group Behavior?Role Behavior patterns expected of someone who occupies a given position in a social unit Norms Standards or expectations that are accepted and shared by a group’s members A role refers to behavior patterns expected of someone who occupies a given position in a social unit. Individuals play multiple roles, , adjusting their roles to the group to which they belong at the time. All groups have established norms, acceptable standards that are shared by the group’s members. Norms dictate output levels, absenteeism rates, promptness or tardiness, the amount of socializing allowed on the job, and so on. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
What Is Status and Why Is It Important?A prestige grading, position, or rank within a group Status is a prestige grading, position, or rank within a group. As far back as scientists have been able to trace human groupings, they’ve found status hierarchies: tribal chiefs and their followers, nobles and peasants, the haves and the have-nots. Status systems are important factors in understanding behavior Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
Does Group Size Affect Behavior?Large Groups are good for gaining diverse input Small Groups Are typically faster at implementation Social Loafing The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually The size of a group affects that group’s behavior. However, that effect depends on what criteria you’re looking at. The evidence indicates, for instance, that small groups complete tasks faster than larger ones. However, if a group is engaged in problem solving, large groups consistently get better marks than their smaller counterparts. Groups of approximately five to seven members tend to act more effectively Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
Are Cohesive Groups More Effective?Group Cohesiveness The degree to which group members are attracted to one another and share the group’s goals Research has looked at group cohesiveness, the degree to which members are attracted to one another and share the group’s goals. The more that members are attracted to one another and the more that a group’s goals align with each individual’s goals, the greater the group’s cohesiveness. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
How Are Groups Turned into Effective Teams?80 percent of Fortune 500 use teams Teams typically outperform individuals when the tasks require multiple skills, judgment, and experience Work Teams Groups whose members work intensely on specific, common goals using their positive synergy, individual and mutual accountability, and complementary skills When companies like W. L. Gore, Volvo, and Kraft Foods introduced teams into their production processes, it made news because no one else was doing it. Today, it’s just the opposite—the organization that doesn’t use teams would be newsworthy. It’s estimated that some 80 percent of Fortune 500 companies have at least half of their employees on teams. And over 70 percent of U.S. manufacturers use work teams Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
Copyright ©2011 Pearson EducationTypes of Work Teams Problem-Solving Teams A team from the same department or functional area that’s involved in efforts to improve work activities or to solve specific problems Self-Managed Work Team A type of work team that operates without a manager and is responsible for a complete work process or segment When work teams first became popular, most were problem-solving teams, which are teams from the same department or functional area involved in efforts to improve work activities or to solve specific problems. Members share ideas or offer suggestions on how work processes and methods can be improved. A self-managed work team is a formal group of employees who operate without a manager and are responsible for a complete work process or segment. A self-managed team is responsible for getting the work done and for managing themselves Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
Copyright ©2011 Pearson EducationTypes of Teams (cont.) Cross-Functional Team Teams made up of individuals from various departments and that cross traditional departmental lines Virtual Team A type of work team that uses technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal The third type of team is the cross-functional team, which we introduced in Chapter 5 and defined as a work team composed of individuals from various specialties. Many organizations use cross-functional teams. The final type of team is the virtual team, which is a team that uses technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal. For instance, a virtual team at Boeing-Rocketdyne played a pivotal role in developing a radically new product. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
WHAT FACTORS MAKE A TEAM EFFECTIVE?Adequate Resources the team’s ability is reduced without adequate resources Team Leadership and Structure all members contribute in the work Trust Team members must trust each Performance Evaluation and Reward System Members have to be accountable both individually and jointly Four contextual factors appear to be most significantly related to team performance. These include adequate resources, leadership and structure, a climate of trust, and performance evaluation and reward systems. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
Copyright ©2011 Pearson EducationMuch research has been done on what it is that makes a team effective. Out of these efforts, we now have a fairly focused model identifying those characteristics. Exhibit 9-6 summarizes what we currently know about what makes a team effective Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
Processes Related to EffectivenessFive team process variables have been shown to be related to team effectiveness. These include : a common purpose specific team goals team efficacy managed conflict minimal social loafing Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
Work Design and Team EffectivenessThese Important work design characteristics enhance team member motivation and increase team effectiveness Autonomy Using a variety of skills Completing a whole and identifiable task or product Several team composition factors are important to a team’s effectiveness. These include team member abilities, personality, role allocation, diversity, size of teams, member flexibility, and member preferences. Part of a team’s performance depends on its members’ knowledge, skills, and abilities. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
Copyright ©2011 Pearson EducationNine potential team roles have been identified. (See Exhibit 9-7.) High-performing work teams have people to fill all these roles and have selected people to fulfill these roles based on their skills and preferences. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
When Are Teams Not the Answer?Teamwork takes more time and often more resources than does individual work Teams require managers to communicate more, manage conflicts, and run meetings The benefits of using teams need to exceed the costs Teamwork takes more time and often more resources than does individual work. Teams require managers to communicate more, manage conflicts, and run meetings. So, the benefits of using teams need to exceed the costs. And that’s not always the case! In the rush to use teams, some managers have introduced them into situations in which it would have been better to have individuals do the work. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
Chapter 12 Understanding Work Teams
Leaders Facilitate Teamwork
Supervision in Organizations
Principles of Management Learning Session # 41 Dr. A. Rashid Kausar.
Understanding Work Teams
Chapter Learning Objectives
McGraw-Hill/IrwinCopyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter Fifteen Effective Groups and Teams.
Exploring Management Chapter 14 Teams and Teamwork.
Part 4: Leading PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 9 Understanding Work Teams.
Chapter 13 Teams and Teamwork
Group Processes and Work Teams Chapter Nine. © Copyright Prentice-Hall Group Dynamics Group dynamics focus on the nature of groups – the variables.
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 8-1 Understanding Work Teams Chapter 8 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 8/e Stephen P. Robbins.
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Virtual teams These are teams that work together and solve problems through computer-based interactions. What are some benefits? Drawbacks? They save time,
PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook
Organizational Behavior MBA-542 Instructor: Erlan Bakiev, Ph.D.
Effective Groups and Teams
Effective Team Management
© 2021 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.