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“The Equal Rights Struggle Expands”

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1 “The Equal Rights Struggle Expands”
Other groups borrowed heavily from the Civil Rights struggles of African Americans: They created organizations similar to the SCLC and SNCC to fight for their cause Many used non-violent protests to bring attention to their causes Laws passed due to the African American civil rights movement protected the rights of members of these other groups as well (eg. Civil Rights Act of 1964 banned discrimination based on color, gender, religion, or national origin)

2 Mexican Americans Organize
By 1960’s most Mexican Americans lived in the cities of the southwest League of United Latin American Citizens created decades earlier continued to fight for rights for Hispanics La Raza Unida (“United People”) – organization formed in 1970 that fought for better jobs, pay, education, housing, and to elect Mexican American candidates

3 Mexican Americans (continued)
Cesar Chavez – started a union for migrant farmers in California Used non-violent protests, strikes, and boycotts won a contract with higher pay and better benefits

4 Mexican Americans (continued)
Cinco de Mayo – May 5th holiday which celebrates the 1862 victory of Mexico over France (holiday for Mexican national and cultural pride)

5 Mexican American students in the Southwest fought for better schools, more courses on Mexican-American culture and history, and more Mexican-American teachers By mid 1970’s many of the school reforms that the students called for had been made

6 Gains for Hispanics A 1968 amendment to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act required schools to teach students whose first language was not English in both languages until they learned English The Voting Rights Act of 1975 required communities with large immigrant populations to print ballots in the voters’ preferred language

7 Hispanic Diversity Hispanics trace their roots to Spanish-speaking countries and cultures Hispanic Americans come from different countries, so they often have differences Mexicans concerned about immigration to the U.S. and citizenship Cubans worried about the freedom of their home country from communism Puerto Ricans (P.R. a territory of the U.S.) are not worried about either issue (more worried about economic issues)

8 The Women’s Movement In the 1960’s women also demanded equal rights in job opportunities, pay, legal rights, and to keep jobs if pregnant Laws passed during the African American civil rights movement began to protect the rights of women Equal Pay Act of 1963 requires women to be paid the same as men Civil Rights Act of 1964 bans discrimination based on gender Higher Education Act gives women equal access to college education

9 Women’s Rights Leaders
Betty Friedan – wrote The Feminine Mystique, a book that described the problems women faced in the 1950’s and 1960’s; and was one of the founders of N.O.W. Shirley Chisholm from NYC was elected in 1968 as the first African American woman in the House of Reps.

10 The Women’s Movement (continued)
National Organization for Women (N.O.W.) – organization formed in 1966 whose major goals were to help women get good jobs and equal pay for equal work NOW protest in New Jersey in 1972 ►

11 Equal Rights Amendment (E. R. A
Equal Rights Amendment (E.R.A.) – Constitutional amendment passed by Congress and sent to the states for ratification It would guarantee women equal opportunities in jobs and education, and equal pay for equal work Conservative women, like Phyllis Schlafly spoke out against ERA saying it would hurt families if women focused on careers rather Many argued that all the protections in the ERA already existed in other laws Needed 38 states to ratify it by 1982 (only 35 did)

12 Native Americans Unite
Termination Policy – U.S. govt. policy in 1953 that ended federal protection of the reservation land held by tribes National Congress of American Indians – founded in 1944 promoted pride in traditional Native American cultures led protests against the termination policy National Congress of American Indians logo

13 Native American Protests Turn Radical
American Indian Movement – fought a more aggressive campaign for rights and recognition of tribal laws Occupied the federal Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1972 for 7 days in protest Occupied the village at Wounded Knee, SD (site of the US Army massacre of Sioux Indians in 1890) which ended in a bloody gunfight with federal marshals AIM leader Russell Means

14 Indian Self-Determination Act of 1975 – gave tribal governments more control over social programs, law enforcement, and education on reservations Issues today for Native Americans relate to hunting and fishing rights, access to water, and casino gambling

15 Disability Rights Movement
Disabled in Action – organization created in 1970 by activists that fought to make people aware of the challenges facing people with disabilities Laws that aided disabled people: Rehabilitation Act of 1973 banned discrimination against those with disabilities in federal agencies Education of Handicapped Children Act of 1975 required public schools to provide a quality education to children with disabilities Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 outlawed all discrimination against people with disabilities Disability Rights Movement

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