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Chapter 31: An Era of Social Change

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1 Chapter 31: An Era of Social Change
Essential Question: How did minority groups in the United States respond to inequality in American society? “The times they are a-changin’.” Bob Dylan Section 1: Latinos and Native Americans Seek Equality –1/7/13 Section 2: Women Fight for Equality- 1/8/13 Section 3: Culture and Counterculture-1/9/13

2 Latinos and Native Americans Seek Equality
Chapter 31 Section 1 1/6/14

3 Key Terms Cesar Chavez United Farm Workers Organizing Committee
La Raza Unida American Indian Movement

4 Key Dates 1966- United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC) started by Cesar Chavez 1968-American Indian Movement formed 1969- Native Americans seize Alcatraz Island 1970- California Grape Boycott ends 1970- La Raza Unida party formed 1973- Native Americans seize Wounded Knee SD 1972- Native American Education Act 1975- Native American Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act

5 Latino Population Grows
Large and diverse group: Mexicans Puerto Ricans Cubans Central and South Americans Many came for different reasons: Escape poverty and civil wars Many Cubans came after Cuban Revolution of 1959 to escape communism Many lacked education Mexicans generally settled in California and American Southwest Most worked as braceros or temporary laborers Settled in segregated neighborhoods called Barrios Puerto Ricans mainly settled on east coast- New York City especially Cubans fled Castro Many settled in Miami and southern Florida


7 The Farm Workers Movement
Many Mexican Americans worked as migrant farm workers Hard work for little pay and no benefits Cesar Chavez began organizing unions for Farm Workers 1962 -National Farm Workers Association 1966- United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC) Influenced by MLK- Non-Violent Protest 1965- California Grape Boycott begins 1968- Chavez 3 week hunger strike 1970- Growers finally recognize the union

8 Cesar Chavez

9 Growing Influence 1968- Bilingual Education Act passed
Provided instruction in language other than English in public schools Political Influence 1960- MAPA Mexican American Political Association formed st Latino elected to Congress- Henry Gonzalez nd Latino elected to Congress- Edward Roybal 1970- La Raza Unida- The United People Party Ran Latino candidates in local elections Focused on issues for the Latino community


11 Native Americans Struggle for Equality
Hundreds of distinct Native American Groups Poorest group in America High unemployment and little economic opportunity on reservations 1953- Termination Policy Moved Native Americans from reservations to urban areas Total disaster- Native Americans did not Assimilate/ remained poor 1965- LBJ creates Council on Indian Opportunity Gives Native Americans more autonomy and promotes economic opportunity on the Reservations

12 Native American Reservation Land

13 The American Indian Movement- AIM
Founded in 1968 Protested for increased Native American Rights Sometimes led to violence 1969- Alcatraz Island Indians of All Tribes, a militant group, seized Alcatraz island in San Francisco bay Offered to pay $24 in beads and cloth for the island Federal officials removed them after 18 months 1972- Trail of Broken Treaties Protest march in DC- took over Bureau of Indian Affairs building causing 2 million in damage





18 1973-Wounded Knee Occupation
AIM led 200 Sioux to Wounded Knee SD Occupied town and took 11 people hostage Occupation lasted 71 days Both sides traded fire continuously Ended with shootout with FBI and US Marshalls One Native American and one officer were killed in the fight

19 Native Americans at Wounded Knee, 1973




23 Native American Victories
1972- Indian Education Act 1975- Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act Gave Native Americans increased autonomy Most importantly in education Many groups sued the government over broken treaties and received millions in reparations Taos in New Mexico were 1st Others across the country followed in their example

24 Reflection Question In your opinion, do you believe the protest methods undertaken by Native Americans were justified to achieve their goals?

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