INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) IPM is an environmentally sound integration of all control methods to control pest populations below economic or damaging levels
IPM STRATEGIES u Prevention u Pest & Symptom Identification u Regular Survey for Presence, Symptoms, Damage Caused by the Pests u Establish Action Thresholds & Guidelines
IPM METHODS Cultural Control Mechanical & Physical Control Biological Control Chemical Control
CULTURAL CONTROL u Growing healthy plants u Buying pest-free plant materials u Choosing resistant varieties u Choosing the planting site u Fertilization - too much or too little u Sanitation - removal of infected plant materials u Watering methods
MECHANICAL & PHYSICAL CONTROL u Barriers - Copper banding for snails/slugs u Mulching - For weed control & water conservation u Solarization of Soil - For control of weeds and soil borne diseases u Hosing & Syringing - For control of aphids & spider mites, etc. u Handpicking & Crushing - For many large insects and beetles u Hoeing - For weed control u Trapping - Pheromone traps, sticky traps, etc.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL u Parasitoids - Parasitic flies & wasps u Predators - Lady beetles & lacewings u Diseases - Fungal, bacterial and viral diseases for insect control; beneficial nematodes
CHEMICAL CONTROL u Inorganic Pesticides - Derived from elemental sources: sulfur u Organic Pesticides - Synthetic pesticides further classified by chemical families and modes of action. u Botanical Pesticides - Derived from plant materials: pyrethrum, rotenone, rynia, bioneem, pepper oil, etc. u Microbial Pesticides - Derived from microbial organisms: Bacillus thuringienses
TYPE OF PESTICIDES u INSECTICIDES – For INSECT pests like aphids, beetles, caterpillars, and may include mites u MITICIDES (ACARICIDES) – For MITE pests like spider mites and blister mites u FUNGICIDES – For FUNGAL PATHOGENS like powdery mildew, rust, blackspot u BACTERICIDES – For BACTERIAL PATHOGENS like crown gall u MOLLUSCICIDES – For MOLLUSK pests like snails and slugs u RODENTICIDES - For RODENT pests like mice u HERBICIDES – For WEED pests such as grass & broadleaf plants
INSECTICIDES - Mode of Action u SYSTEMIC - Absorbed by the plant system via foliage or roots to build up concentration levels in the sap that causes death to insects upon ingestion u STOMACH - Is toxic and lethal when ingested by the insect u CONTACT - Kills on contact with external body of insect u RESIDUAL - Remains toxic to insects long after application u FUMIGANT - Volatile enough to be inhaled by the insect in lethal doses u REPELLENT - Distasteful to insects making them avoid treated areas
FUNGICIDES - Mode of Action u PROTECTANT - Applied before infection of fungus spores u ERADICANT - Applied after infections appear and kills on contact u SYSTEMIC - Translocated by leaves and roots and distributed in the plant to prevent infection
TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES u TOXICITY means "how poisonous" u The commonly used measure of oral and dermal toxicity is LD50 (LD means Lethal Dose) and values are measured from "0" up. The lower the LD50 - the more poisonous the chemical u EXAMPLE: A Dermal LD50 of 0-200 mg/kg is more toxic than that of >20,000 mg/kg
SIGNAL WORDS u POISON: Highly Toxic – like Nicotine Sulfate u DANGER: Highly Toxic – like Funginex (Triforine) & Vendex u WARNING: Moderately Toxic – like Roundup u CAUTION: Slightly Toxic - Many botanicals & microbial pesticides
HOW PESTICIDES ENTER THE BODY u ORAL - Pesticides can enter your mouth. Avoid eating or smoking during mixing or during and after spraying. u DERMAL - Pesticides can be absorbed through the skin. Avoid wearing pesticide soaked clothing; Avoid direct contact with the concentrated form of the pesticide. u INHALATION - Pesticides in the form of dusts, spray mist or fumes can be drawn into the lungs. Avoid inhaling wettable powders dusts, granules, or other dry pesticide formulations.
PESTICIDES – CORRECT USE u Always use the pesticide according to its label u Always read and understand the label thoroughly u Never recommend the use of restricted chemicals! u Always abide by the pesticide regulations in YOUR STATE
IPM IN THE HOME GARDEN u Establish damage levels for your own garden u Make observations and record them u Correctly identify the pest u Take the appropriate action; sometimes the appropriate action is no action