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Introduction Developing reading & writing skills for primary school

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1 Introduction Developing reading & writing skills for primary school
Hamidah Mohd Ismail TSL 646

2 Learning Goals Explain the definition of reading.
Identify reading purposes Describe the aims of teaching reading. Categorise types of reading. Explain factors that influence reading

3 Introduction "The more that you read, the more things you will know. The more you learn, the more places you'll go." Dr. Seuss

4 What is reading? WHAT DO WE READ?



identifying the words in print (word recognition), constructing an understanding from them (comprehension) identifying words and making meaning so that reading is automatic and accurate (fluency)

8 What is reading? Reading in general is defined as interpreting means reacting to a written text as piece of communication. In other words, we assume some communicative intent on the writer’s part which the reader has some purpose in attempting to understand. Reading in its fullest sense involves weaving together word recognition and comprehension in a fluent manner. These three processes are complex, and each is important

9 Reading Purposes What could the reading purpose of each person be?

10 Reading purposes … There are 3 general categories of reading purposes:
Reading for survival Reading for learning Reading for pleasure

11 Reading purposes … Why do people read and what motivates them to read?
Survival in the real world (e.g. notices, train schedules, manuals etc.) Intellectual profit (useful content, understand the world better) Pleasure (gives pleasure e.g. reading literature)

12 TAKE A BREAK List down all the kinds of texts (in any language) that you have read in the past one month. What kind of reading (survival, learning or pleasure) does each of the text represent? For example, hand phone manual (reading for survival/life-support system). 

13 Aims of teaching reading…
The KSSR objectives for reading specifies that at the end of Year 6, students should be able to read and comprehend a range of English texts for information and enjoyment, as well as appreciate and demonstrate understanding of English language literary or creative works for enjoyment

14 Aims of teaching reading…
Help students become independent readers. Teach how to use context, dictionary, table of contents, etc. Develop response to a text. Develop creative and critical thinking when responding to a text. Help students read with adequate understanding. Read for meaning rather than reading words. Help pupils read at appropriate speed. Read different texts at different speeds. Help students read silently. Read silently - human mind and eye work faster than the mouth.

15 Types of Classroom Reading
Oral Reading Silent Reading Intensive Extensive

16 Oral reading… Beginning and intermediate levels
Check on students’ processing skills and pronunciation Encourage active participation Learn to incorporate variations in pitch, tone, pace, volume, pauses, eye-contact, questions and comments in order to produce a fluent and enjoyable delivery. But not an authentic language activity

17 Silent reading… Helps concentrate on what they are reading
Form mental pictures of the topic being discussed Develop strategies they need for reading fast, and with better comprehension Develop the skills of reading for a purpose - focus on understanding the content, not pronunciation 2 major components: intensive and extensive reading.

18 Silent reading: Intensive reading
Reading to understand meaning in greater detail Classroom-oriented activity - focus on linguistic or semantic details of a passage (grammatical forms, discourse markers, etc.) 2 advantages: Beginner & intermediate level of students - fastest way to build vocabulary. Advanced level students - encourage develop strategies Focuses on items or strategies that apply to any text, requires students to read the text, provides useful feedback for the students and the teacher

19 Silent reading: Extensive reading
Mostly performed outside of the classroom Builds confidence and enjoyment - comprehension of main ideas, not for specific details. Complements as extra-curricular activity where students read out of class Advantages include developing reading habit amongst students, gaining more confidence in reading, improving their attitude towards reading and becoming more motivated to read.

20 Factors Influencing Reading
First language literacy, Level of proficiency in English Background knowledge

21 Factors Influencing Reading…
L1literacy influences speed & manner of reading in English. L1 reading ability may be easily transferred to English. Positive feeling towards L2 reading comes from positive attitude towards L1 reading (Yamashita, 2004) Teachers should understand learners' reading attitudes in the first as well as in the second language.

22 Factors Influencing Reading…
Level of proficiency in English Skilled L1 readers resort to employing poor reading strategies due to lack of L2 proficiency They may face problems with relating the printed words with oral knowledge and using it, understanding concepts in print, and predicting what will be encountered in print. Teachers should maintain an integrated approach to reading Engage students in the oral use of the language surrounding the topic that is being read.

23 Factors Influencing Reading…
Background Knowledge Allow relate text to their previous experiences - reading bocomes more personal Activating prior knowledge (schemata) - most important aspect of the reading experience. Teachers should ensure students have prior knowledge on the subject related to the reading text in order to assist them in comprehending the text Text selection based on students’ prior knowledge, cultural background and interests

24 LET’S DISCUSS In a small group, ask each other about learning to read.
How did you learn to read your native language? How did you learn to read in the second language? How did your teacher manage the reading lessons? Do you think there were differences in learning to read your first and second languages? If so, what are some of these differences?


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