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Article Summary – EDU 215 Dr. Megan J. Scranton 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Article Summary – EDU 215 Dr. Megan J. Scranton 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Article Summary – EDU 215 Dr. Megan J. Scranton 1

2  2 fastest-growing populations in U.S. consist of Hispanic (50.5 million) & Asian/Pacific Islander (11.8 million) of the 308 million  76% of these people five years & older speak their mother tongue (a language other than English)  In 2009, only 30% of ELLs (vs. 69% not ELLs) were at or above basic & only 7% scored at or above proficient (vs. 34% not ELLs) on the NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) 2

3  Poor reading comprehension  Low reading vocabulary  Lack phonemic awareness skills  Difficulty with phonics  Decreased reading fluency  Difficulty with spelling  Teachers lack understanding of the concepts related to English language needed to teach reading skills 3

4  Reading & vocabulary instruction can serve as core instructional processes that respond to the literacy needs of ELLs  At any age, poor readers, as a group, exhibit weaknesses in phonological processing & word recognition speed & accuracy  Success in reading comprehension is directly related to one’s vocabulary knowledge  If students do not know the words they are reading & cannot derive meaning from context, they must expand their vocabularies & learn a repertoire of comprehension strategies 4

5  With skilled, explicit instruction, many children who start school speaking little or no English can gain word reading & spelling skills equal to those of native speakers in 2 – 3 years  Developing vocabulary & comprehension skills is much harder & takes longer  Understanding written texts depends on gaining competence in spoken English  If children receive instruction in phonological & alphabetic skills, & learn to apply that knowledge to decoding words, they are very likely to succeed at reading 5

6  Key = Direct, Explicit Teaching & Learning Experiences  Use of cooperative learning & reciprocal teaching  Need to “scaffold” & “differentiate” instruction  Model correct grammar & pronunciation  Ask challenging, higher-level questions  Know the ELL’s level of literacy  Teaching students to read in their first language promotes higher levels of reading achievement in English – can transfer skills from one language to another 6

7  5 components: Phonological awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, & text comprehension  Syntax & Grammar  Writing  Spelling  Pronunciation  Norms of social usage  Ample meaningful opportunities to use English academically & authentically 7

8  Direct teaching of decoding  Literature appreciation  Phoneme awareness instruction  Systematic & explicit instruction in the code system of written English (phonics)  Incentives for children to read  Vocabulary instruction  Comprehension strategies  Frequent writing of prose  Daily exposure to a variety of texts 8

9  A large oral vocabulary is a significant factor in a child’s later reading success  Oral vocabulary facilitates understanding words in print  Oral language comprehension usually indicates the maximum level of reading comprehension  Need to specifically target oral vocabulary for ELLs  Allow for self-selection of vocabulary  Emphasize structural analysis  Help develop content area vocabulary (Tier 3 words)  Teach multiple meanings & different connotations 9

10  Link new vocabulary with background knowledge  Focus on semantic relationships of new & familiar words & concepts  Restate dictionary definitions in own words (student- friendly)  Use synonyms, antonyms, & dictionary definitions to understand Tier 3 words  Use structural analysis (i.e., affixes, contractions)  Use contextual analysis activities (surrounding words/sentences) – work cooperatively  Maintain personal content-related word lists/banks 10

11  ELLs need direct vocabulary instruction  ELLs need to be motivated; know their interests, attributes, & specific areas of need  The correlation among vocabulary development, spelling, & reading comprehension is high because all depend on a common denominator: Proficiency with language  The more deeply & thoroughly a student knows a word, the more likely he/she will be able to recognize it, spell it, define it, & use it appropriately in speech & writing 11

12 “The goal of teachers is for ELLs to be provided appropriate instructional processes to address their language learning needs to raise their levels of English proficiency & academic achievement & enable them to be lifelong learners.” 12

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