2 What is Balanced Literacy? Provides several kinds of reading and writing, ranging from reading and writing independently to activities requiring support and others that are teacher led.Every day should be balanced and provide opportunities for students to engage in all the activities at some point.Not all activities need to come from LA time- reading and writing happens in every subject.We learn to write so we can share our ideas with others. We learn to read so we can gather information – it is a cycle.Hard to separate reading and writingProgram of Studies also contains speaking, listening, viewing- these are also dependent upon the ability to read and write.Grades learn to readGrades read to learnOperate under assumption that all children can learn to read and writeTeachers must view themselves as lifelong learners and continually strive to improve their practice. Administrators mjust be supportive instructional leaders to assist teachers in gaining continuous professional development.
3 3 Main Activities Word Work: Word Wall/ Making Words Reading: Read Aloud/Shared Reading/Independent and Guided ReadingWriting: Demonstration/Shared/ Independent Writing
4 Word WorkTo teach students how to recognize and spell high frequency wordsTo teach students predictable patterns within wordsTo develop knowledge of phonics and phonological awarenessTo emphasize generalizations
5 Word WallFocus is on high usage and frequency words (Dolch, Fry, content specific, etc.)Usually introduce no more than 5 per weekEmphasize over learningCurriculum reference: CS 23. Word PowerOptions:-Primary Grades:show Pig video (YouTube)Give each group a word (cat/fan/wish)List as many words as possible from the word familyMake up song/poem/dance/skit, tongue twister or story to presentWrite definitions or illustrate 3 hard or new words for word wallhow can you make your own song/poem that uses other consonant clusters?Making and Breaking Word activityCut up word into letters. What other words can you make? What consonant clusters can you use to find new words?Eg. e o o u d g h s us/ use/ Sue/ due/ dug/ hug/ dog / good /hose/house doghouseUpper GradesWord Wall activitySee p. 24 of original booklet from last year.Instead of developing a Word Wall- develop a Key Wall. Select 5 words that students need to learn from current content area topic. What are some ways that you could teach these words to students?Chant/Spell/ Move to the words (Eg. Basketball bounce- as you spell the word make the motion of bouncing the ball once for each letter- then at the end shoot up to make the basket saying the whole word) Say the letters in a loud voice/grumpy voice/ monster voice, etc.
6 Making Words Focus on phonological skills Involves auditory and manipulative skills- using more than one learning styleInvolves recognizing phonological patterns and sequencing soundsBuild words together in pocket chart using alphabet lettersTransfer and sorting step important as need to generalize knowledge to new contexts
7 ReadingGive students daily experiences of totally supported to independent readingMove from high support to independence in activitiesHigh support IndependenceRead aloud and write aloud - Shared Reading and Writing Guided Reading and Guided Writing- Independent Reading and Writing
8 Read- AloudPurposeCompletely supported by teacher in that students are listening to text read aloud for themListening to the rhythm and meaning of written language at level slightly more difficult than independent reading levelModelling reading strategiesDeveloping metacognitive skillsEngage students in joy of reading & meaning of textsExpose students to the sounds & rhythms of written languageModel expert readingExpand horizons, background knowledge & vocabulary developmentIntegrate LA strategies with other areas of the curriculumProvide examples of a wide range of genres & authorsRead alouds can be more than just books- newspapers/magazines/ poems/ charts and diagrams/maps/ directions for building/ etc.Reading strategies are modeled: What questions/comment will you make aloud as you read to the student to demonstrate the metacognitive thinking processes????Analyzing narrative elements: So that is how the problem is solved/ this tells me about the setting/the main character is... Because/ If the climix is the most exciting part – what was the climax in this story?Analyzing non-fiction: How is this book organized ?/ Is there a Table of Contents to help me know what is in the book?/ The columns on the chart mean I need to red down- it won’t make sense if I read across/ I will read the main text first and then read the captions later- they give me more informationSequencing: In this recipe, there are numbers to tell me what order things are added/ I look for words like first, next, then so I understand what the order is/ So at the beginning of the story I found out, I want to know what happens next/ I wondering if the order matters here.....Making connections: This reminds me of....../ This is like another book / This makes me think of the news last night when..../ I need to compare what the autor is telling me with what I know about..../ What do I know about this topic?Predicting: I wonder what might happen next? / When I finish a chapter I think about what has happened and ask myself ‘ What will happen when...? / I always read the blurb on the back of the book. The information helps me to ask “ What will this book be about? Will it answer my questions? Is it on the right topic?/ Did it work out like I thought it would or do I need to make a new prediction?Inferring: Let me think about why that happened/ It does not say exactly, but the author gives us some clues about how he feels/ What is the author trying to tell me here?Visualizing: I am making a picture of that in my mind/ The author describes the characters and setting so well I can paint a picture of them in mind/ When I read this part, I can draw the machine described /Evaluating; This was a great way to catch my attention / The author thinks I wonder about... I feel that...../ My opinion of what was written is / This part does not match because /Synthesizing: The author gives a summary of the main steps we follow when / The title tells about the most important concept in the book/ I have learned
9 Shared Reading Purpose Expose students to wide range of genresEngage students in supported reading so that the whole class can share the reading experience and the contentIncrease students’ exposure to textTeach reading strategies to the classLink content with other areas of the curriculumReading a text together in a way that students are given enough group support to enable all of the students to join in.Often takes the form of big books ,pocket chart stories, flyers, letters, etc.All need to have copy of the text to be read.Everyone has to have a copy of what is to be read!!! This can be the math or the social studies text book.Student are working cooperatively to share a passage together and gather meaningTeacher is involved in guiding the use of strategies that were modelled in read aloud sessionsCan also be chanting poetry, reading charts, reading with expression to perform a readers theatre sessionReading in the content areas:Discuss the passageLook for specific pieces of informationUsing a jigsaw approach to read longer texts and then each member shares what they have learnedCan be done as partner reading where both are looking for specifics
10 Independent Reading Reading texts that they can cope with alone. Engaging in supported reading activities that will help them to gain enough practice as readers to enable them to become more independent (reading buddies, reading with a listening center, etc)PurposeProvide independent or supported reading practiceEngage students in literacy activities that will move them toward more independenceHow to choose a book/ material that is “ just right”3 finger rule (if there are 3 words on the first page/paragraph that you can not pronounce, then the text is probably too hard)Stop and Think cards- help to focus (example provided)Can read for enjoyment or for information
11 Guided Reading Purposes Allow students to be exposed to range of print materialsTeach comprehension and contextual word recognition strategiesEmphasize reading as a problem solving activity and to focus students of self-monitoringMove children progressively from easy to harder reading materials and they develop competence as readersProviding reading experiences at the students ‘reading levels’- at their instructional level.Teacher’s role is to select appropriate materials, plan a session that focuses on assisting the student to problem solve as readers, and to give reading prompts that emphasize strategies that the students can useUsually happens at the same time as Independent ReadingTeacher helps students focus on specific strategy to be used in the joint reading. Eg.Predictionlooking for specific informationputtting a sticky note on the new wordcompleting KWL chart to determine knowledge and how to add to itIs often done in small groups that have common reading level/ interest/ level of supportAt upper levels, this could take the form of a novel study. Students would read novel or passages that match level/ topic, etc.
12 Planning the Guided Reading Lesson Select appropriate book.Think and plan for the followingBackground knowledgeAmount to be read each day.Purpose of the book and activity.Specific strategies to be learnedAssessment for next lessonsStudents are generally clustered according to reading levels and needs. They should be reading texts at their instructional level of 90-95% contextual word recognition and comprehension.How do I do it?Teacher preparationSelect appropriate book. Think in terms of the supports and challenges that the book has to offer. Texts chosen should be at the right level of difficulty so that students will be able to experience success and yet have some reading problems to solve.Think and plan for the following:How will you introduce the book so that they will be able to take advantage of the knowledge they already have?Plan links to background knowledge about the subject or genre of text.Plan how much will be read by the group, especially if it is a longer selection or novel.What purpose do you want them to keep in mind as they read and what activity will you have them complete?What specific strategies are you hoping to observe in targeted students?How will you record your observations to help you plan for further lessons?Students are generally clustered according to reading levels and needs. They should be reading texts at their instructional level of 90-95% contextual word recognition and 70%+ comprehension. Use of assessment instruments such as the DRA, Reading observations, etc. may be of use.
13 Teaching the Guided Reading Lesson IntroductionProviding students with information about the supports and challenges they will meet.Can take the form of a picture walk, discussion of key vocabulary, locating words they already know, etc.Want to activate the strategies that they already have acquired and can use to help them problem solveTeaching the Mini lessonExplain the reading structure or literacy deviceModel reading strategyCheck for understandingText read should be at level that they do not need to struggle to decode the words when readingIntroducing the Text- keep it short and to the point!!!Activate prior knowledgeIntroduce vocabulary that is necessary for understandingUse pictures and real objects to help with meaning and interestSkim and scan text structure- chapter titles, headings, pictures, charts and graphsPredictTeaching the Mini lessonWhat are your outcomes for the reading? Are you wanting them to gather information about a specific topic/ looking for text structures such as foreshadowing? Are you looking to see if they can apply knowledge of word families/consonant clusters to read new words with that pattern?
14 3. Independent readingReading the text independently after teacher has explained the purpose.Need to have established what do if are done early- read it again, assigned task, etc.Teacher uses time to circulate and listen to students read, noting what strategies they are using and what they may need instruction on next.List of prompts is useful as well as having a clear idea of what specific reading strategies you are looking to hear/see.Students reading silentlyMost reading done by adults is done silentlyStudents focus on comprehension when reading silently as opposed to focusing on student errors when reading aloudStudents are more on task when reading silently than when there is round robin readingEveryone in the group readsTeacher taps individual students who then read softly in the teachers ear to check for using and or using confusing strategiesTeacher record observations from reading to help plan the next lesson- short notes for next session on what needs to be reviewed/ who needs to read a more challenging text/ what strategies does everyone need to learn- what does just a few need to focus on???What reading level should guided reading be done?Instructional level: 95% accuracy and at least 60% comprehensionIndependent level: 99% accuracy and 90% comprehensionFrustration level: 90% accuracy and 50% accuracy
15 4. Conclusion Discussing responses to focus question. Retelling of story to check comprehension.Sharing of opinions and viewpoints.Discussing and Revisiting the TextStudents:Confirm or revise predictionsRetell or sulmmarize in their own words what they have readAsk questions about confusing parts or vocabularyMake connections to themselves, other texts, and the worldRe read to verify responsesReflect on how they used the mini-lesson strategyMake inferences about the textShare opinions about the text, citing evidenceExtending the Meaning of the TextComparing the theme with other authorsComparing the text with other books by same authorCompleting an activity to summarize
16 What will the rest be doing while I am reading with a group? Independent reading activities:Word WallRead the RoomListening CentreActivities to compliment guided reading text from previous lessonIndependent reading of material already discussed- book boxesComputer Activitiesetc.Need to “train the troops”.Activities that might be happeningReading a self selected independent reading book and possibly working on a project for itUsing the word wall or vocabulary board to use the words in new waysOrganizing vocabulary in new waysWorking at literacy centresWriting in response journals - using the information gained in previous reading for new purposes/ sharing insights gained from reading/ applying knowledge in new waysWorking on research for social studies or science unitWorking on assignment related to guided readingManagement strategies that need to be in place. What are you comfortable with??Specific procedure for students at their seatsGetting out of one’s seatWorking independentlySharpening a pencilGetting suppliesWhat to do when you're finishedWhen you may interrupt the teacher during guided reading group – do you appoint a ‘go to’ student to answer procedure questions/ What is an emergency for your class?Students in the guided reading group need to know their specific proceduresWhat to bringWhere to sitHow to behaveWhat to do when your finish reading
17 WritingCan be integrated with other subject areas or as part of the Language Arts time
18 Demonstrate and model writing techniques (mini-lessons) PurposeDemonstrate and model writing techniques (mini-lessons)Help students to develop awareness of the organizational structures that underpin different writing genres, and to encourage them to use these writing organizers in their own planningTo engage students in a variety of supported writing activities (shared writing and guided writing)Provide environment where independent writing can occurConference with students and help them to refine their writingShare their work with othersMoving from guided to independent in the formatWrite aloud:Teacher models and talks aloud as write on chart paper. This could be on how to write a story, an essay, a chart, or a problem for math classShared Writing:All the class contributes to a shared project.Teacher facilitates and guides as students add ideas, spellings, punctuation, and editing suggestions.This could be contributing to a shared data collection chart based on knowledge in science or social studies about a specific topic.The shared writing activity can be a result of a shared reading activity or something from a guided reading experienceGuided and independent writing:Students write on their own but receive guidance and support from teacher as required.Groups may be formed to work on aspects of writing when there are several children with the same needs.Whole class receives prewriting support via the use of text structure organizers.
19 Gives students the opportunity to develop as individual readers while participating in a socially supported activityGives teachers the opportunity to observe individuals as they process new textsGives individual readers the opportunity to develop reading strategies so that they can read increasingly difficult texts independentlyGives students enjoyable, successful experiences in reading for meaningDevelops the abilities needed for independent readingHelps students learn how to introduce texts to themselves
20 Assessment Questions to ask: What will this assessment tell me about the learner?How will I be able to use that information to plan my program?
21 Word WorkAre the students learning to recognize the high frequency words?Are the students learning to spell and use the high frequency words?Are the students learning to analyze new words when reading?Are the students learning to spell new words through pattern analogy?
22 How do I know if the book I selected is suitable for this student? Guided ReadingWhat is the student’s Instructional Book Level? How does this change over time?How do I know if the book I selected is suitable for this student?What progress is the student making in acquiring strategies for word recognition and reading comprehension?Review Frustration/Instructional/ Independent level chartLooking for fluency!!!
23 WritingWhat evidence is there that knowledge is being applied?What rubrics and checklists will best show the progression of knowledge?
24 Lesson Planning Samples of daily plans Samples of assessment instrumentsAlways checking to see if there is understanding- what do they need to practice/expand/ review?Providing challenges in safe environmentLiteracy is in every subject.