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Balanced Literacy J McIntyre 2011. Belize.

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Presentation on theme: "Balanced Literacy J McIntyre 2011. Belize."— Presentation transcript:

1 Balanced Literacy J McIntyre Belize

2 What is Balanced Literacy?
Provides several kinds of reading and writing, ranging from reading and writing independently to activities requiring support and others that are teacher led. Every day should be balanced and provide opportunities for students to engage in all the activities at some point. Not all activities need to come from LA time- reading and writing happens in every subject. We learn to write so we can share our ideas with others. We learn to read so we can gather information – it is a cycle. Hard to separate reading and writing Program of Studies also contains speaking, listening, viewing- these are also dependent upon the ability to read and write. Grades learn to read Grades read to learn Operate under assumption that all children can learn to read and write Teachers must view themselves as lifelong learners and continually strive to improve their practice. Administrators mjust be supportive instructional leaders to assist teachers in gaining continuous professional development.

3 3 Main Activities Word Work: Word Wall/ Making Words
Reading: Read Aloud/Shared Reading/Independent and Guided Reading Writing: Demonstration/Shared/ Independent Writing

4 Word Work To teach students how to recognize and spell high frequency words To teach students predictable patterns within words To develop knowledge of phonics and phonological awareness To emphasize generalizations

5 Word Wall Focus is on high usage and frequency words (Dolch, Fry, content specific, etc.) Usually introduce no more than 5 per week Emphasize over learning Curriculum reference: CS 23. Word Power Options: -Primary Grades: show Pig video (YouTube) Give each group a word (cat/fan/wish) List as many words as possible from the word family Make up song/poem/dance/skit, tongue twister or story to present Write definitions or illustrate 3 hard or new words for word wall how can you make your own song/poem that uses other consonant clusters? Making and Breaking Word activity Cut up word into letters. What other words can you make? What consonant clusters can you use to find new words? Eg. e o o u d g h s us/ use/ Sue/ due/ dug/ hug/ dog / good /hose/house doghouse Upper Grades Word Wall activity See p. 24 of original booklet from last year. Instead of developing a Word Wall- develop a Key Wall. Select 5 words that students need to learn from current content area topic. What are some ways that you could teach these words to students? Chant/Spell/ Move to the words (Eg. Basketball bounce- as you spell the word make the motion of bouncing the ball once for each letter- then at the end shoot up to make the basket saying the whole word) Say the letters in a loud voice/grumpy voice/ monster voice, etc.

6 Making Words Focus on phonological skills
Involves auditory and manipulative skills- using more than one learning style Involves recognizing phonological patterns and sequencing sounds Build words together in pocket chart using alphabet letters Transfer and sorting step important as need to generalize knowledge to new contexts

7 Reading Give students daily experiences of totally supported to independent reading Move from high support to independence in activities High support  Independence Read aloud and write aloud - Shared Reading and Writing Guided Reading and Guided Writing- Independent Reading and Writing

8 Read- Aloud Purpose Completely supported by teacher in that students are listening to text read aloud for them Listening to the rhythm and meaning of written language at level slightly more difficult than independent reading level Modelling reading strategies Developing metacognitive skills Engage students in joy of reading & meaning of texts Expose students to the sounds & rhythms of written language Model expert reading Expand horizons, background knowledge & vocabulary development Integrate LA strategies with other areas of the curriculum Provide examples of a wide range of genres & authors Read alouds can be more than just books- newspapers/magazines/ poems/ charts and diagrams/maps/ directions for building/ etc. Reading strategies are modeled: What questions/comment will you make aloud as you read to the student to demonstrate the metacognitive thinking processes???? Analyzing narrative elements: So that is how the problem is solved/ this tells me about the setting/the main character is... Because/ If the climix is the most exciting part – what was the climax in this story? Analyzing non-fiction: How is this book organized ?/ Is there a Table of Contents to help me know what is in the book?/ The columns on the chart mean I need to red down- it won’t make sense if I read across/ I will read the main text first and then read the captions later- they give me more information Sequencing: In this recipe, there are numbers to tell me what order things are added/ I look for words like first, next, then so I understand what the order is/ So at the beginning of the story I found out, I want to know what happens next/ I wondering if the order matters here..... Making connections: This reminds me of....../ This is like another book / This makes me think of the news last night when..../ I need to compare what the autor is telling me with what I know about..../ What do I know about this topic? Predicting: I wonder what might happen next? / When I finish a chapter I think about what has happened and ask myself ‘ What will happen when...? / I always read the blurb on the back of the book. The information helps me to ask “ What will this book be about? Will it answer my questions? Is it on the right topic?/ Did it work out like I thought it would or do I need to make a new prediction? Inferring: Let me think about why that happened/ It does not say exactly, but the author gives us some clues about how he feels/ What is the author trying to tell me here? Visualizing: I am making a picture of that in my mind/ The author describes the characters and setting so well I can paint a picture of them in mind/ When I read this part, I can draw the machine described / Evaluating; This was a great way to catch my attention / The author thinks I wonder about... I feel that...../ My opinion of what was written is / This part does not match because / Synthesizing: The author gives a summary of the main steps we follow when / The title tells about the most important concept in the book/ I have learned

9 Shared Reading Purpose
Expose students to wide range of genres Engage students in supported reading so that the whole class can share the reading experience and the content Increase students’ exposure to text Teach reading strategies to the class Link content with other areas of the curriculum Reading a text together in a way that students are given enough group support to enable all of the students to join in. Often takes the form of big books ,pocket chart stories, flyers, letters, etc. All need to have copy of the text to be read. Everyone has to have a copy of what is to be read!!! This can be the math or the social studies text book. Student are working cooperatively to share a passage together and gather meaning Teacher is involved in guiding the use of strategies that were modelled in read aloud sessions Can also be chanting poetry, reading charts, reading with expression to perform a readers theatre session Reading in the content areas: Discuss the passage Look for specific pieces of information Using a jigsaw approach to read longer texts and then each member shares what they have learned Can be done as partner reading where both are looking for specifics

10 Independent Reading Reading texts that they can cope with alone.
Engaging in supported reading activities that will help them to gain enough practice as readers to enable them to become more independent (reading buddies, reading with a listening center, etc) Purpose Provide independent or supported reading practice Engage students in literacy activities that will move them toward more independence How to choose a book/ material that is “ just right” 3 finger rule (if there are 3 words on the first page/paragraph that you can not pronounce, then the text is probably too hard) Stop and Think cards- help to focus (example provided) Can read for enjoyment or for information

11 Guided Reading Purposes
Allow students to be exposed to range of print materials Teach comprehension and contextual word recognition strategies Emphasize reading as a problem solving activity and to focus students of self-monitoring Move children progressively from easy to harder reading materials and they develop competence as readers Providing reading experiences at the students ‘reading levels’- at their instructional level. Teacher’s role is to select appropriate materials, plan a session that focuses on assisting the student to problem solve as readers, and to give reading prompts that emphasize strategies that the students can use Usually happens at the same time as Independent Reading Teacher helps students focus on specific strategy to be used in the joint reading. Eg. Prediction looking for specific information puttting a sticky note on the new word completing KWL chart to determine knowledge and how to add to it Is often done in small groups that have common reading level/ interest/ level of support At upper levels, this could take the form of a novel study. Students would read novel or passages that match level/ topic, etc.

12 Planning the Guided Reading Lesson
Select appropriate book. Think and plan for the following Background knowledge Amount to be read each day. Purpose of the book and activity. Specific strategies to be learned Assessment for next lessons Students are generally clustered according to reading levels and needs. They should be reading texts at their instructional level of 90-95% contextual word recognition and comprehension. How do I do it? Teacher preparation Select appropriate book. Think in terms of the supports and challenges that the book has to offer. Texts chosen should be at the right level of difficulty so that students will be able to experience success and yet have some reading problems to solve. Think and plan for the following: How will you introduce the book so that they will be able to take advantage of the knowledge they already have? Plan links to background knowledge about the subject or genre of text. Plan how much will be read by the group, especially if it is a longer selection or novel. What purpose do you want them to keep in mind as they read and what activity will you have them complete? What specific strategies are you hoping to observe in targeted students? How will you record your observations to help you plan for further lessons? Students are generally clustered according to reading levels and needs. They should be reading texts at their instructional level of 90-95% contextual word recognition and 70%+ comprehension. Use of assessment instruments such as the DRA, Reading observations, etc. may be of use.

13 Teaching the Guided Reading Lesson
Introduction Providing students with information about the supports and challenges they will meet. Can take the form of a picture walk, discussion of key vocabulary, locating words they already know, etc. Want to activate the strategies that they already have acquired and can use to help them problem solve Teaching the Mini lesson Explain the reading structure or literacy device Model reading strategy Check for understanding Text read should be at level that they do not need to struggle to decode the words when reading Introducing the Text- keep it short and to the point!!! Activate prior knowledge Introduce vocabulary that is necessary for understanding Use pictures and real objects to help with meaning and interest Skim and scan text structure- chapter titles, headings, pictures, charts and graphs Predict Teaching the Mini lesson What are your outcomes for the reading? Are you wanting them to gather information about a specific topic/ looking for text structures such as foreshadowing? Are you looking to see if they can apply knowledge of word families/consonant clusters to read new words with that pattern?

14 3. Independent reading Reading the text independently after teacher has explained the purpose. Need to have established what do if are done early- read it again, assigned task, etc. Teacher uses time to circulate and listen to students read, noting what strategies they are using and what they may need instruction on next. List of prompts is useful as well as having a clear idea of what specific reading strategies you are looking to hear/see. Students reading silently Most reading done by adults is done silently Students focus on comprehension when reading silently as opposed to focusing on student errors when reading aloud Students are more on task when reading silently than when there is round robin reading Everyone in the group reads Teacher taps individual students who then read softly in the teachers ear to check for using and or using confusing strategies Teacher record observations from reading to help plan the next lesson- short notes for next session on what needs to be reviewed/ who needs to read a more challenging text/ what strategies does everyone need to learn- what does just a few need to focus on??? What reading level should guided reading be done? Instructional level: 95% accuracy and at least 60% comprehension Independent level: 99% accuracy and 90% comprehension Frustration level: 90% accuracy and 50% accuracy

15 4. Conclusion Discussing responses to focus question.
Retelling of story to check comprehension. Sharing of opinions and viewpoints. Discussing and Revisiting the Text Students: Confirm or revise predictions Retell or sulmmarize in their own words what they have read Ask questions about confusing parts or vocabulary Make connections to themselves, other texts, and the world Re read to verify responses Reflect on how they used the mini-lesson strategy Make inferences about the text Share opinions about the text, citing evidence Extending the Meaning of the Text Comparing the theme with other authors Comparing the text with other books by same author Completing an activity to summarize

16 What will the rest be doing while I am reading with a group?
Independent reading activities: Word Wall Read the Room Listening Centre Activities to compliment guided reading text from previous lesson Independent reading of material already discussed- book boxes Computer Activities etc. Need to “train the troops”. Activities that might be happening Reading a self selected independent reading book and possibly working on a project for it Using the word wall or vocabulary board to use the words in new ways Organizing vocabulary in new ways Working at literacy centres Writing in response journals - using the information gained in previous reading for new purposes/ sharing insights gained from reading/ applying knowledge in new ways Working on research for social studies or science unit Working on assignment related to guided reading Management strategies that need to be in place. What are you comfortable with?? Specific procedure for students at their seats Getting out of one’s seat Working independently Sharpening a pencil Getting supplies What to do when you're finished When you may interrupt the teacher during guided reading group – do you appoint a ‘go to’ student to answer procedure questions/ What is an emergency for your class? Students in the guided reading group need to know their specific procedures What to bring Where to sit How to behave What to do when your finish reading

17 Writing Can be integrated with other subject areas or as part of the Language Arts time

18 Demonstrate and model writing techniques (mini-lessons)
Purpose Demonstrate and model writing techniques (mini-lessons) Help students to develop awareness of the organizational structures that underpin different writing genres, and to encourage them to use these writing organizers in their own planning To engage students in a variety of supported writing activities (shared writing and guided writing) Provide environment where independent writing can occur Conference with students and help them to refine their writing Share their work with others Moving from guided to independent in the format Write aloud: Teacher models and talks aloud as write on chart paper. This could be on how to write a story, an essay, a chart, or a problem for math class Shared Writing: All the class contributes to a shared project. Teacher facilitates and guides as students add ideas, spellings, punctuation, and editing suggestions. This could be contributing to a shared data collection chart based on knowledge in science or social studies about a specific topic. The shared writing activity can be a result of a shared reading activity or something from a guided reading experience Guided and independent writing: Students write on their own but receive guidance and support from teacher as required. Groups may be formed to work on aspects of writing when there are several children with the same needs. Whole class receives prewriting support via the use of text structure organizers.

19 Gives students the opportunity to develop as individual readers while participating in a socially supported activity Gives teachers the opportunity to observe individuals as they process new texts Gives individual readers the opportunity to develop reading strategies so that they can read increasingly difficult texts independently Gives students enjoyable, successful experiences in reading for meaning Develops the abilities needed for independent reading Helps students learn how to introduce texts to themselves

20 Assessment Questions to ask:
What will this assessment tell me about the learner? How will I be able to use that information to plan my program?

21 Word Work Are the students learning to recognize the high frequency words? Are the students learning to spell and use the high frequency words? Are the students learning to analyze new words when reading? Are the students learning to spell new words through pattern analogy?

22 How do I know if the book I selected is suitable for this student?
Guided Reading What is the student’s Instructional Book Level? How does this change over time? How do I know if the book I selected is suitable for this student? What progress is the student making in acquiring strategies for word recognition and reading comprehension? Review Frustration/Instructional/ Independent level chart Looking for fluency!!!

23 Writing What evidence is there that knowledge is being applied? What rubrics and checklists will best show the progression of knowledge?

24 Lesson Planning Samples of daily plans
Samples of assessment instruments Always checking to see if there is understanding- what do they need to practice/expand/ review? Providing challenges in safe environment Literacy is in every subject.

25 Fitting It All In

26 Additional Literacy Activities

27 Things to Think About Time allocated Integration of subjects
Materials and resources Classroom management challenges ?????

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