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The Black Death-100 Years War- Great Schism

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1 The Black Death-100 Years War- Great Schism
Chapter 11 Review The Black Death-100 Years War- Great Schism

2 Feudalism During the middle ages Feudalism was the form of government of much of Europe King on top had complete control Lords (aristocrats-nobles) had wealth and supported king Knights fought Peasants (the great majority) lived miserably with no rights

3 Trouble A-brewing Little Ice Age hits Europe in the end of the 13th Century Small drop in temp= disastrous weather conditions The Great Famine Heavy rain leads to plant destruction 10% of the population dies Survivors are malnourished Increased trade with Genghis Khan’s (early 13th century) protection of the silk road

4 Black Death Bubonic Plague= Yersinia Pestis came from fleas on infested rats. Starts in ports in Sicily and spreads northward in the middle of the 14th C Estimates claim that 25-50% were killed. . .

5 Aftermath of the Plague
Some people abandon social norms (Boccaccio’s quote 307) Extreme asceticism: Flagellants not very popular with the higher-ups Pogroms and anti-semitism Loss of life meant raise in wages and decrease in prices Lack of labor means giving in to demands including limited legal rights

6 Peasants begin to fight
Feudalism (manorialism) begins to fade Upset nobles try to have the monarch crush revolts Peasant revolts spread throughout the land (Jacquerie or the ciompi) Peasants begin to fight for rights. . . Only men sorry ladies

7 War erupts Causes: King Philip IV (of France) dies with no male heir
Isabella of England, (she-wolf) daughter of P4, has her son Edward III claim title since he is in line French decide to go with a cousin and rename him Philip VI of Valois Year later in 1337 Edward does not give homage for Gascony and Philip takes it. Edward declares war!

8 Course of the War French army wore heavy armor and cavalrymen looked with disdain on foot soldiers and crossbowmen English used peasants with pikes and bows (go welsh) English win at Crecy with more advanced army in 1346 The Black Prince (Edward’s son) devastates the French later (battle of Poitiers) capture French king John II and a momentary truce is made

9 Phase 2 John’s son Charles V gets it all back by 1374 for France
Henry V (England) in 1415 at battle of Agincourt. Heavily armored French get stuck in the mud and are slaughtered (took advantage of a French civil war) Henry marries Catherine (Charles VI’s) daughter and becomes heir apparent

10 A woman saves France Charles the Dauphin (VI’s son) becomes frustrated and is saved unexpectedly by the leadership of a peasant woman (Joan of Arc) Win at Orleans Burgundians capture the girl and she is burned to death as a witch at 19 : ( War lasted from ish

11 Impact of 100 years War Most Europeans realize that the old fighting system needs to be changed to incorporate more peasants and bowman Growing tensions from England and France Influence of a woman in politics/military

12 Terms Activity Scutage 3rd Estate Golden Bull Mysticism Petrarch Dante
Conciliarism Popolo Grasso

13 The Great Schism “The struggles between the papacy and secular monarchies began during the pontificate of Pope Boniface VIII” Understand? King Philip IV (remember p4!) of France began to tax the church Pope Boniface responds with pg 322 the Unam Sanctam

14 Great Schism cont Unam Sanctam claimed that secular rulers could not control religious ones! Pope excommunicates Philip IV Philip sends a military and kidnaps the pope!!! The Italians freak out and save him . . . And the peasants rejoice

15 Papacy in Avignon ( ) Pope Boniface ultimately dies of stress from the whole event and a college of cardinals is summoned Phillip IV “encourages” the cardinals to elect a French pope. Clement V takes up residence in a city of popes (avignon) And the peasants do not rejoice

16 Papacy in Avignon People become frustrated with the church in Avignon (very wealthy) and pope is the bishop of Rome People become suspicious that the French are using the papacy as puppets 113 of 134 new cardinals are French! Catherine of Siena calls Pope Gregory XI out pg 323

17 Changes in the Church Gregory XI returns to Rome and dies
At the new college of cardinals Roman citizens “encourage” the cardinals to elect a non-French pope pg 324 Urban VI is chosen (an Italian And no I don’t know why we went from Urban VIII to the VI)

18 French get back Urban VI brings in a ton of new Italian cardinals and the French run away French church leaders claim it was a sham and call for a new pope to be elected and choose Clement VII who returns to Avignon Great Schism begins in the Church with election of two popes

19 More Popes Both popes excommunicate each other
Marsiglio writes Defender of the Peace and claims church authority has no power over secular activities and should be separated Rise of Conciliarism: Have a church council to determine changes and solve problems not single church leaders

20 Conciliarism Fail Council of Pisa deposes both popes and elects Alexander V Yeah?!? Earlier popes choose not to step down so now we have 3 popes Another ecumenical council is held by Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund and Martin V is elected and 3 popes all kicked out

21 Results of Great Schism
People lost faith in the church and its hold over Europe was significantly weakened Wealth of the church led to many great monuments and sculptures (Renaissance) Rise in Mysticism

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