2 The Standoff Pope Boniface VIII In 1300, the Church of the High Middle Ages, centralized in the Papacy, was at its strongest.Clericis LaicosKings can’t tax the clergyKings need papal support for using funds garnished from the churchPope Boniface VIII
3 NO! Edward I of England Philip IV “The Fair” of France And what you gonnado about it Boni Boy?NO!Edward I of EnglandPhilip IV “The Fair”of France
4 I’m bringing the Bull!“Unam Sanctum” 1302Papal BullMost extreme of all assertions of Papal supremacy"Let no one persuade you that you have no superior or that you are not subject to the head of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, for he is a fool who so thinks."
5 More UNUM SANCTUM Philip IV's response? “Every human creature was subject to the Roman Pontiff (Pope)Two swordsspiritual and temporalOnly one sword rules…the popePhilip IV's response?
6 What’s a King to do??? Accuses the Pope of being the devil Send 2000 mercenaries to kill himBoniface VIII is captured, then releaseddies of “extreme chagrin” month laterdiminishes power of Pope and raises Philip IV
7 Babylonian Captivity (1303-1417) The death of Boniface VIII brought about the election of a Pope who was subservient to Phillip the FairNew Pope Clement V, took his residence in the French border city of AvignonThe rest of Europe regarded the Popes at Avignon as tools of FrancePopes began to live a more extravagant lifestylenext 5 popes are all FrenchPope’s palace in Avignon
8 Great Schism of the West In 1378 Pope Gregory XI dies while in RomeRomans demand Pope be chosen while cardinals are in RomeChoose Urban VIan Italian who decides to stay in Rometemper begins to shock cardinals
9 What to do when you don’t like your pick? Just pick another Pope!
10 Two Popes Key Point: all of this was occurring in Urban VIelected by the CardinalsBased in Romeexcommunicates Clement VIIRecognized by:EnglandHoly Roman EmpireItalyClement VIIelected by the same Cardinalsbased in Avignon, Franceexcommunicates Urban VIRecognized by:FranceAragon / Castile (Spain)ScotlandKey Point: all of this was occurring inthe same generation as the plague
11 What’s better than two popes? Both die and each side elects a new popeCardinals on both sides get together in 1409 to resolve the issue….instead.They choose another pope!Yes, three popes at once!
12 Jon Wyclif (1380)The true Church could do without elaborate possessionsown no landAn organized Church might not be necessary for salvation.Lollardsmovement based on Wyclif ideaswanted reform of western churchreligious power came from piety, not church hierarchyTranslated the Bible into EnglishDisgusted in the schismpeople sent out to sway opinion for papal support
13 John Hus Led a nationalistic religious movement in Bohemia Similar to WycliffBible is a higher authority than the Pope
14 Conciliar MovementMovement to solve issues by gathering church leadersHoped to diminish the power of the PopeCreate a council to rule with the Pope1450 movement ends with Papacy still in tact
15 Council of ConstancePeople tired of the bickering and infighting between the THREE Popesjust want some spiritual leadership and guidancestop the spread of heresy!!Elect Martin V Popeothers resignedJohn Husaccused of heresyburnt at the stake
16 Simony, Nepotism, Pluralism Church continues to be corrupted by money and privileges:SimonyTo buy or sell a Church officeNepotismTo give lucrative Church positions to familyPluralismTo hold more than one Church position at a time