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By Henry M. Wrobleski and Kären M. Hess

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1 By Henry M. Wrobleski and Kären M. Hess
INTRODUCTION TO LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE, 8th Edition Chapter 1 A Brief History: The Evolution of Law and Our Criminal Justice System By Henry M. Wrobleski and Kären M. Hess

2 What is law? Law refers to all the rules of conduct established and enforced by the custom, authority or legislation of a group, community or country. Law implies both prescription (rule) and enforcement by authority. In the United States, those who enforce the laws are not the same as those who make them. Text p.4 Chapter 1

3 When and why did law enforcement begin?
A system of law and law enforcement began earlier than 2000 B.C. as a means to control human conduct and enforce society’s rules. Keeping the peace was the responsibility of the group. Text p.5 Chapter 1

4 Figure 1-1 From the Code of Hammurabi (2200 B.C.)
If a builder builds a house for a man and does not make its construction firm and the house collapses and causes the death of the owner of the house––that builder shall be put to death. If it causes the death of a son of the owner––they shall put to death a son of that builder. If it causes the death of a slave of the owner––he shall give the owner a slave of equal value. If it destroys property he shall restore whatever it destroyed and because he did not make the house firm he shall rebuild the house which collapsed at his own expense. Text p.5 Chapter 1

5 Peelian Reform Sir Robert Peel was known as the “father of modern policing” Peel’s principles for reform called for: Local responsibility for law and order; Appointed, paid civilians to assume this responsibility; and, Standards for conduct and organization. Peel’s proposals led to the organization of the Metropolitan police of London in 1829. Text p.11 Chapter 1

6 The principles of Peelian Reform stated:
Police must be stable, efficient and organized militarily. Police must be under governmental control. The deployment of police strength by both time and area is essential. The securing and training of proper persons is at the root of efficiency. Public security demands that every police officer be given a number. Police headquarters should be centrally located and easily accessible (continued . . .) Text p.11 Chapter 1

7 The principles of Peelian Reform stated:
Policemen should be hired on a probationary basis. The duty of police is to prevent crime and disorder. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with these problems. The power of the police to fulfill their duties is dependent on public approval and on their ability to secure and maintain public respect. The police should strive to maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the tradition that the police are the public and the public are the police. Text p.11 Chapter 1

8 Federal Law Enforcement
Congress created several federal law enforcement agencies to meet demands created by the nation’s changing conditions. Among the earliest of these agencies were the U.S. Marshals Office, the Immigration and Naturalization Service, the Secret Service, and the Internal Revenue Service. The recent creation of the Department of Homeland Security brought with it a reorganization of the Department of Justice and the Department of the Treasury. Text pp.16-19 Chapter 1

9 Law Enforcement Agencies Within DHS
Department of Homeland Security U.S. Coast Guard Secret Service Federal Computer Incident Response Center Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services Customs and Border Protection Text pp.19-20 Office of Inspector General Transportation Security Administration Chapter 1

10 The Three Eras of Policing
The Political Era ( ) The Reform Era ( ) The Community Era (1980-Present) Text pp.23-33 Chapter 1

11 The Political Era (1840-1930) Police forces characterized by:
broad social service function a decentralized organization intimate relationship with community extensive use of foot patrol The spoils system The Pendleton Act and civil service system African-American officers – discriminated against, kept segregated Women officers –protective and nurturing role, not crime-fighting Text pp.24-27 Chapter 1

12 The Reform Era (1930-1980) Police forces characterized by:
authority coming from the law and professionalism crime control as primary function centralized, efficient organization professional remoteness from community emphasis on preventive motorized patrol, rapid response to crime Influence of August Vollmer Impact of Blue Ribbon Commissions Advances for women and minorities Griggs v. Duke Power Co. Equal Employment Opportunity Act (EEOA) Text pp.27-32 The Equal Employment Opportunity Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex, race, color, religion or national origin in employment of any kind, public or private, local, state or federal. Chapter 1

13 The Community Era (1980-Present)
Police forces characterized by: authority coming from community support, law and professionalism provision of a broad range of services, including crime control decentralized organization with more authority given to patrol officers intimate relationship with the community use of foot patrol and a problem-solving approach Text pp.32-33 Chapter 1

14 Juvenile Justice System
Doctrine of parens patriae Four major phases in the development of the juvenile justice system: A Puritan emphasis An emphasis on providing a refuge for youths Development of a separate juvenile court Emphasis on juvenile rights Illinois Juvenile Court Act of 1899 Text p.33-37 Chapter 1

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