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The European Battle for Territory. In your notebook, list as many adjectives (descriptive words) that come to mind when you hear “Africa”

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Presentation on theme: "The European Battle for Territory. In your notebook, list as many adjectives (descriptive words) that come to mind when you hear “Africa”"— Presentation transcript:

1 The European Battle for Territory

2 In your notebook, list as many adjectives (descriptive words) that come to mind when you hear “Africa”

3 Continent – not a country Continent is three times larger than Europe Northern Africa – mostly desert Mid-to-southern Africa – diverse climates and topography

4 Nations ranged from large empires to independent villages Hundreds of ethnic groups Africans controlled their own trade networks Many followed Islam or Christianity


6 Imperialism: the seizure (takeover) of a country or territory by a stronger country European countries had complete control over their colonies – Politics – Economics – Society – Culture Imperialism in Africa Video

7 Explorers seeking wealth and notoriety Missionaries trying to convert Africans to Christianity Humanitarians felt they needed to civilize the savage Africans –“White Man’s Burden”

8 Belief in European superiority – Racism – Social Darwinism European advantages: – Technological superiority – Means to control populations (ex: weapons) – New medicines prevented diseases

9 Industrial Revolution Source for Raw Materials Markets for Finished Goods European Nationalism Missionary Activity Military & Naval Bases European Motives For Colonization Places to Dump Unwanted/ Excess Popul. Soc. & Eco. Opportunities Humanitarian Reasons European Racism Social Darwinism



12 You will be reading three different foreign perspectives on why Europe should be imperialist. Read these and answer the analysis questions. Your answers will come right from the documents!

13 1882- King Leopold II of Belgium claims the Congo Other European countries start to worry they won’t get any land – 1914: Only Liberia and Ethiopia were free from Europe

14 1884: Europeans leaders divide Africa – No African rulers invited – Little or no thought about the differences in ethnic groups

15 DO NOW According to this cartoon, which European countries were fighting for a position in Africa? How did the Berlin Conference lead to the situation shown in the cartoon? Berlin Conference in Plain English

16 (Murdoch-1959)

17 1. Africans Zulu nation, led by Shaka Fought the British 2. Boers Dutch Had controlled South Africa since mid 1600s 3. British Gained control of South Africa after the Berlin Conference

18 Late 1800s: discovery of gold and diamonds in Boer territory set off the Anglo-Boer War 1901: British won, but at great cost The Anglo-Boer War British Boers


20 King Leopold and other Belgians exploited the riches of the Congo Brutalized the natives. Many Africans were enslaved, beaten, and killed. Belgium Territory

21 Very powerful in North Africa Later spread into West and Central Africa Territory France controlled as large as the United States French Territory

22 Second in size only to France Many natural resources British Territory

23 Fought battles against African natives to take lands in the southern half of Africa Lost colonies after WWI German Territory

24 Conquered Libya Took Somaliland, but later lost it to Ethiopians Italian Territory

25 African claims of the Portuguese and Spanish were minimal Portuguese Territory Spanish Territory



28 East India Company – Controls India through economic imperialism – Company uses an army including Indian soldiers known as “ sepoys ” India seen as the most important colony – Known as the “ Jewel in the Crown ” – Produces lots of raw materials

29 Indians Rebel – Sepoys refuse to use ammo cartridges due to religious reasons They had to bite them open – greased with pork fat Considered unclean by Muslims – Many sepoys were jailed, others rebelled – British put down the rebellion Results – Britain takes direct control of India – Increased distrust between Indians and British

30 British control political and economic power Railroads move cash crops and goods faster Cash crops resulted in loss of self-sufficiency and caused famine Britain sought to “ modernize ” India Indian culture is disrupted due to racism and missionaries


32 European Powers invade the “ Pacific Rim ” – Lands of Southeast Asia that border the Pacific Ocean Why? – Land perfect for establishing trading and military posts – Excellent for plantation agriculture

33 Results – Modernization helps the European businesses – Education, health, and sanitation improves – Millions migrate to find work – Racial and religious clashes increase


35 China vs. the West – China was self-sufficient – no need for trade – China kept a favorable balance of trade – Europeans were able to shift the balance Sale of Opium – addictive drug from poppy plant Opium War (1839-1842)– China vs. Britain – China loses – signs Treaty of Nanjing Chinese power over the West ends

36 Foreign Influence Grows – Growing Spheres of Influence A Surge in Chinese Nationalism – Boxer Rebellion Poor peasants and workers who resented foreign priviledge – Beginnings of Reform China tried to become more western Further added to internal problems

37 Imperialism Crash Course Video

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