Presentation on theme: "Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management"— Presentation transcript:
1 Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management Chapter Four – Problems of Communication
2 Learning Objectives Know the five steps of the communication process Be familiar with the nine barriers to communicationsUnderstand how communication and information flow through an agency’s chain of commandUnderstand informal communication networks in the workplaceUnderstand nonverbal communicationUnderstand the difference between communication and informationUnderstand exchange theory exchange networksBe able to define linking pin theoryUnderstand the ethical issues relating to communications
3 Basic Theory of Communication Interpersonal communication begins with a dyad – one individual sending information to another person who receives it.Communication is a sequential process.Person A (sender) encodes a message and transmits it through some medium.Person B (receiver) receives the message and decodes it.Any interruption of this process diminishes the communication.
4 Basic Theory of Communication ProcessBegins when the sender feels the need to communicate.Encoding – the sender translates the message into words or symbolsTransmission – the sender conveys the message through a chosen medium (e.g. )Decoding – the receiver interprets and determines the meaning of the messageIn organizations we must consider dyad functions between individuals, multiple dyads with groups and groups external to the organization.
5 Basic Theory of Communication BarriersPreconceived ideasDenial of contrary informationUse of personal meaningsLack of motivation or interestNon-credibility of the sourceLack of communication skillsPoor organizational climateUse of complex channelsCommunication gap
7 Communication in Organizations The communication process between individuals is simple, but has a high potential for failure.Communications within organizations is far more complex and affected by the:Organizational climate,Complexity of communication channels,Chain of command and hierarchy, andInformal social system.
8 Communication in Organizations Chain of commandFilters messages and may be a barrierDownward communication – allows executives a clear path to send information to subordinatesHorizontal communication – enables members at the same level to share information, solve problems, and coordinate activitiesInformal communicationA reaction to cumbersome formal communication channels – the grapevine.
9 Communication in Organizations Organizational rules for communicationExclusionary rules – limit and differentiate information that can and cannot be used within certain contextsOrganizational rules are often ‘understood’ and highly influenced by the hierarchical nature of the organization.Content rules – govern standard word usageProcedural rules – govern how and when communication happens
10 Communication in Organizations Informal communication networksSocial structures that evolve through repeated communication between individuals and groups.Kinship networks – formed more for personal than professional reasonsNonverbal communicationThe oldest and often most powerful form of communication.Rely on symbols, posture, inflection and other non-spoken elements of the message
11 Communication in Organizations Information and CommunicationInformation is the substance of communicationCommunication is the process of sharing informationLoad – the rate and complexity of communicationOverload – occurs when the flow of messages exceeds and individual’s or system’s capacity to process them. Affected byDependence on the informationCapacity of the receiverReceiver’s desire for the information
12 Communication in Organizations Determinants of communication loadAbsolute information – knowledge expressed in recognized symbolic termsDistributed information – knowledge dispersedForms of informationEnvironmentalMotivationalInstructional
13 Communication Roles Criminal Justice Practitioners Networks are dynamic because their members may enter or leave at any time.Criminal justice workers may be a members of multiple networks simultaneously.Networks tend to interlock with each other through common members.The number of potential networks is virtually endless.
14 Communication Roles Criminal Justice Practitioners
15 Communication Roles Criminal Justice Practitioners
16 Communication Roles Criminal Justice Practitioners
17 Communication Roles Criminal Justice Practitioners
18 Developing Informal Communication Networks Informal networks are created in order to achieve greater efficiencies or avoid historical communication barriers.Exchange theory – workers trade information and assistance with other workers in order to gain efficiencies.Linking pins – individuals who serve as conduits between the groups they are a members of.
19 Implications Intra-organizational communication Environmental communicationIn criminal justice the public’s right or need to know is balanced with the necessity of keeping some information confidential.Intra-organizational communicationHampered by the differential rules and expectations of other organizations.Inter-organizational communicationThe need for communication between all levels of the criminal justice system is more important following recent increases in terrorism.
20 Communication Technology The Internet has created new technologies that both facilitate and hamper communication.Technological innovations sometimes conflict with information security procedures.Tele- and videoconferencing enhance communication but do not replace face to face interaction.
21 Ethical Problems Ethical communication requires: An understanding of the importance of the communication process,A commitment to create, promote and protect ethical boundaries for conversation and information sharing,The avoidance of misusing information as a method of control, andThe setting of boundaries and rules for communication.
22 Thinking Point and Question Using the information contained in this chapter, develop a comprehensive plan for improving inter-agency communication. Your plan, at a minimum, should include;Strategies for overcoming communication barriers,Opportunities for developing formal and informal communications resources, andThe use of technology to improve communications.Describe how your plan would work between the police, fire and building permit functions.
23 Chapter SummaryThe five steps of the communication process include: encoding, transmitting, selecting a medium or channel, receiving, and decodingThe nine barriers to communication include: preconceived ideas, denial of contrary information, use of personalized meanings, lack of motivation or interest, non-credibility of source, lack of communication skills, poor organizational climate, use of complex channels, and communication gap.In a hierarchical organization, communication flows downward from superior to subordinate and upward from subordinate to superior.
24 Chapter SummaryExecutives do not communicate directly with field workers and vice versa.Horizontal communication facilitates coordination.Informal communication networks form on their own and for some purpose.Individuals who are part of an informal communication network share information with each other but not with others who are not included.Nonverbal communication is part of the message when individuals communicate face to face.
25 Chapter SummaryCommunication is a process that sends a message while information is the actual message.In an exchange network members communicate regularly and exchange information for information. Information in these networks is a commodity.Productivity in industry is higher in agencies that are coordinated by interlocking work groups rather than by a monolithic chain of command.The groups are bound together by individuals (linking pins) who are members of more than one group.
26 Thinking Point and Question The newly elected Mayor is concerned about “the apparent lack of communication between agencies within the city’s government”.She calls a meeting of department heads and observes a palpable level of inter-agency distrust.You, as an Assistant City Manager, are asked to develop stronger lines of communication between these agencies.