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The Communication Process

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Presentation on theme: "The Communication Process"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Communication Process
Chapter 3

2 Administrative Office Managers…
Spend more time engaged in communicating than in any other activity.

3 Variables Affecting the Communication Process
Nature of the message Background of sender Background of receiver Relationship between sender and receiver Time of day Unusual circumstances of those communicating

4 Is a process that involves translating the thoughts or information into words, signs, or symbols.
Encoding Occurs when the receiver interprets the message and gives it meaning from his or her own perspective. Decoding

5 Communication Flows Horizontally (Laterally) Other Managers Upward
Superiors Downward Subordinates

6 Downward Communication
Is used by administrative office managers to 1. Keep their subordinates informed. 2. Give them job-related instructions. 3. Provide subordinates with feedback regarding their job performance.

7 Factors to Consider in Selecting Appropriate Downward Medium
Permanency of record If written record required, use written or electronic communication Immediacy Oral or electronic Need for evidence of understanding or feedback Oral—face to face or telephone Formality Written

8 Keep Employees Informed
Small-group meetings Manuals s Memorandums

9 Factors That Affect the Success of Downward Communication
1. Appropriateness of communication channel 2. Timing and clarity of the message 3. Attitudes of those involved in the communication process

10 Other Downward Media Bulletin boards Pamphlets Conferences Interviews
Grapevine Public Address Speech Annual reports Posters

11 Upward Communication Is used by employees to convey to their supervisors their feelings, ideas, aspirations, and attitudes

12 Examples of Upward Communication
Information about one’s job Work-related problems Organizational policies and procedures Suggestions for improving existing practices

13 Variables That Affect the Success of Upward Communication
The nature of the relationship between the subordinate and the manager. The quality of the subordinate’s presentation of the message. The extent to which the content of the message is positive or negative. The timeliness of the message. The extent to which the substance of the message is useful.

14 Methods Designed to Encourage Upward Communication
Social gatherings Publications (newsletters) Meetings Performance appraisals Attitude surveys Suggestion systems “True” open-door policy

15 Horizontal Communication
Takes place between individuals of equal hierarchical rank and is more informal than either downward or upward communication

16 Functions of Horizontal Communication
It helps employees fulfill their socialization needs. It helps employees and departments coordinate their activities with one another. It helps others better understand individual and departmental responsibilities. It helps individuals solve their own problems before others have to become involved.

17 The Grapevine Is a type of informal communication
It is often a fast and surprisingly accurate communication process. Management sometimes uses the grapevine to assess employee reaction to a proposed change.

18 Small-group Communication
Three hierarchical levels of administrative office managers Highest ranking Equal rank Outranked by one or more members

19 Nonverbal Communication
Expressed by Body Language Para- language Time Proxemics

20 Paralanguage Involves
Speaking range Intrusions Speaking rate Pitch Pauses Volume

21 Barriers to Effective Communication
Taking things or people for granted. Incorrect assumptions regarding subordinate interest. Characteristics of upward, downward, and horizontal communication. Semantics (word meanings). Perception of something.

22 Listening…. Is the weakest communication skill of many administrative office managers.

23 Elements of the Listening Process
Internal Elements The listener has to be able to hear the message. The listener has to be able to attach proper meaning to the words in the message.

24 Elements of the Listening Process
Are concerned with the environment in which communication occurs. Contextual Elements Are affected by noise, time constraints, accessibility of sender and receiver to each other and to the communication channel being used.

25 Elements of the Listening Process
Relationship Elements A cordial relationship enhances the listening process.

26 Improve Listening Concentrate on what is being said
Avoid doodling while interacting with others Accept senders for whom they are Avoid “tuning out” senders Learn to “listen” to the nonverbal component of a message with your eyes

27 Improve Listening Keep listening speed consistent with sender’s conversation rate Seek clarification if necessary Listen more objectively Listen as intently to unimportant messages as to important ones Avoid “listening between the lines”

28 Decision Making One of the most important responsibilities of administrative office managers.

29 Steps in the Decision-Making Process
Defining and limiting the problem (or situation). Analyzing the problem (or situation). Defining criteria to be used in evaluating various solutions. Gathering the data/information. Identifying and evaluating possible solutions. Selecting the best solution. Implementing the solution.

30 Nominal Grouping Technique
Listing Recording Final Voting Discussing Voting

31 Sources of Conflict Limited resources that must be shared.
Incompatibility of goals. Organizational reward systems thought to treat some unfairly. Changes in the organizational environment.

32 Factors to Consider for Conflict Resolution Strategy
Background of the conflict situation. Background of those involved in the conflict. Relationship between conflicting parties. Benefits to be derived from resolving conflict.

33 Types of Change Confronting Administrative Office Managers
Is proactive Planned Change Is a result of careful planning, developing, and implementing Is forced change Reactive Change Is a result of events that make change necessary

34 Steps Involved in Implementing Change
Recognize the need for change. Plan the change. Recommend a plan. Decide about the plan Implement the plan.


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