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What is communication? What are the issues in interpersonal communication? What is the nature of communication in organizations? How can we build more collaborative work environments? Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-2
Communication A process of sending and receiving messages with attached meanings. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-3
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-4
Source Encodes an intended meaning into a message. Receiver Decodes the message into a perceived meaning. Noise Any disturbance that disrupts communication effectiveness and interferes with the transference of messages within the communication process. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-5
Communication channels Face-to-face meetings Email Online discussions Written letters Telephone Voice mail Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-6
Feedback The process through which the receiver communicates with the sender by returning another message. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-7
Potential barriers to feedback in the workplace Concern that feedback will be received or raise emotions that individuals are not prepared to handle. Words intended to be polite and helpful can easily end up being perceived as unpleasant and even hostile. Performance appraisal process – finding a way to communicate both praise and criticism. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-8
Nonverbal communication Takes place through facial expressions, body position, eye contact, and other physical gestures. Presence - the act of speaking without using words. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-9
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-10
Interpersonal barriers Occur when individuals are not able to objectively listen to the sender due to things such as lack of trust, personality clashes, a bad reputation, or stereotypes/prejudices. Selective listening – Individuals block out information or only hear things that match preconceived notions. Filter – Convey only parts of the information (e.g., not to tell the “whole” truth). 11- 11 Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Physical distractions Another barrier that can interfere the effectiveness of the communication process. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-12
Semantic barriers Involves a poor choice or use of words and mixed messages. Use the KISS principle of communication. “Keep it short and simple.” Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-13
Active listening The ability to help the source of a message say what he or she really means. Everyone in the new workplace needs to develop good skills in active listening. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-14
Guidelines for active listening Listen for content Listen for feelings Respond to feelings Note all cues Reflect back Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-15
Ethnocentrism The tendency to believe that one’s culture and its values are superior to those of others. Cross-cultural communication challenges: Language differences Use of gestures Parochialism The ways of your culture are the only ways of doing things. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-16
Low-context cultures Members are very explicit in using the spoken and written word. High-context cultures Use words to convey only a limited part of the message. The rest must be inferred or interpreted from the context. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-17
Formal channels Follow the chain of command established by an organization’s hierarchy of authority. Informal channels Do not adhere to the organization’s hierarchy of authority. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11- 18
Grapevine A network of friendships and acquaintances through which rumors and other unofficial information get passed from person to person. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-19
Channel richness The capacity of a communication channel to convey information. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-20
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-21
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-22
Organizational communication Information flows: Through formal and informal structures. Downward, upward, and laterally. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-23
Downward communication Follows the chain of command from top to bottom. Upward communication The flow of messages from lower to higher organizational levels. Lateral communication The flow of messages at the same levels across organizations. 11- 24 Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Advances in information technologies enable organizations to: Distribute information much faster. Make more information available. Allow broader and more immediate access to information. Encourage participation in the sharing and use of information. Integrate systems and functions, and use information to link with the environment. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-25
Potential disadvantages of electronic communications Technologies are impersonal. Nonverbal communication is removed from situation. May create difficulties with understanding the emotional aspects of communication. Information overload. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-26
Status differences Status differences create potential communication barriers between persons of higher and lower ranks. Mum effect tendency to keep “mum” from a desire to be polite and a reluctance to transmit bad news. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-27
Collaborative environments are characterized by boundaryless information flows, more open and transparent communications, and more supportive communication dynamics. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-28
Interactional transparency The ability for both leaders and followers to be open accountable, and honest with one another. Transparent communication involves: o Sharing relevant information. o Being forthcoming regarding motives and the reasoning behind decisions. o Proactively seeking and giving feedback. 11- 29 Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Supportive communication principles Principles focus on joint problem solving with the intent of addressing communication breakdowns and changing problematic behaviors before they get to be big problems. The primary emphasis of supportive communication is to avoid defensiveness and disconfirmation. 11- 30 Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Reduce defensiveness and disconfirmation by: Focusing on the problem, not the person. Being specific and descriptive, not global or evaluative. Owning the communication. Being congruent. 11- 31 Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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