2 CHAPTER 8 Options and Responses STUDY GUIDE FOR CHAPTER 8 LESSON 1Options and ChoiceMatch the Key Term on the left with its definition on the right.bcad1. optiona. events that you expect might happen.2. comparisonb. a potential choice based on a driver’s knowledge, experiences, and skills.3. assumptionc. the examination of similarities and dissimilarities to determine options.4. choiced. the selection of two or more possible options.
3 Analyze each traffic situation below, and list your options as a driver. Put a star by which option do you think is the best for each situation?You are traveling at 45 mph, and the vehicle in front of you begins to slow down.Slow downSwitch LanesA vehicle is coming up quickly behind you and moves into one of your blind spots.Stay in your lane, keep an eye on the other vehicleSwitch lanesYou are approaching an intersection, and the traffic signal is beginning to change from green to yellow.Slow down, come to a complete stopSpeed up to make the lightGo through the light if you are too close to stop safely
4 FIND OUT MORE. Based on your experiences as a passenger in a motor vehicle, list the assumptions you make about right-of-way rules at a 4-way stop.You should NEVER make assumptions that other drivers will know what to do.Driver’s will stop.Driver’s will yield to the vehicle on the rightDrivers making a left will yield to drivers going straight.Driver’s will yield to pedestrians.Pedestrians will cross only when allowed.
5 STUDY GUIDE FOR CHAPTER 8 LESSON 2 Responses to Manage Space and TimeFor each sentence below, circle T if the statement is true and F if it is false. Correct each false statement in the space below.A driver must be aware of how much time and space it takes for a vehicle to react to a driving event.TrueHuman-perception time refers to the total time needed for a human being to determine his or her options in a driving situation and to choose one.As a driver, you can safely manage space and time by maintaining a constant speed regardless of traffic or road conditions.False - You must adjust your speed according to traffic or road conditions.Driving with your low beams on during the daylight hours makes your vehicle visible about 220 feet sooner than when you drive without them.False - Low beams make your vehicle visible 2,200 feet sooner during daylight hours.
6 Road grime can reduce headlight illumination up to 50 percent. False - Road grime can reduce headlight illumination up to 90 percent.You should identify objects that could increase the level of risk 12 to 15 seconds ahead of you.TrueIf you double your speed, your stopping distance will double.False - If you double your speed, your stopping distance will multiply by four.Total Stopping Distance = Perception Time + Reaction Time + Breaking DistanceFIND OUT MORE. Look in your NJ Driver’s Manual.How much longer will it take a truck, compared to a car, to stop during adverse or bad weather conditions? 25%Speed can be a factor between life and death; therefore how much braking distance (in feet) will it take a vehicle to stop on dry surface, when driving at a speed of 60 mph?277 feet *300 feet on the State Exam
8 For each sentence below, circle T if the statement is true and F if it is false. Correct each false statement in the space below.Maintaining adequate space around your vehicle is the best way to avoid collisions.TrueTo maintain an adequate visual lead margin, scan and search 50 to 60 seconds ahead of your vehicle.False - Scan and search 20 to 30 seconds ahead of your vehicle.The visual control zone begins 5 to 10 seconds ahead of your vehicle.False - The visual control zone begins 12 to 20 seconds ahead of your vehicle.In the response zone, you take actions that will control or reduce perceived risks. TrueThe potential immediate crash zone is about 6 to 8 seconds ahead of your vehicle.False - lt is 0 to 4 seconds ahead of your vehicle.
9 To reduce the possibility of a collision, you should always be able to stop within the distance that you can see ahead of your vehicle.TrueFIND OUT MORE. During the next few days, observe people’s following distance in particular while you are riding in the school bus or in another vehicle. Look in your NJ Driver’s Manual.How many seconds does NJ recommend as a safe following distance?3-4 seconds in optimal conditions.Why is this following distance so important?It gives you time to react in an emergency.
10 STUDY GUIDE FOR CHAPTER 8 LESSON 4 Margins of SafetyFor each sentence below, circle T if the statement is true and F if it is false. Correct each false statement in the space below.Keeping a margin of safety allows you the space, time, and visibility for safe movements at anytime.TrueThe margin of safety is a fixed distance of 10 to 15 seconds ahead of your vehicle.False - The margin of safety will increase or decrease depending on driving conditions.You increase risk by allowing space between your vehicle and another.False - You decrease risk by allowing space between vehicles.You should keep a minimum of 3 seconds of following distance, and 4 to 5 seconds at speeds of4o mph or more.
11 Always try to have at least one car width of space to one side of your car. TrueIt is good practice to keep a safe distance to give you time to react to emergencies.List five circumstances in which you should increase the margin of safety around your vehicle.When weather or road conditions are poorWhen driving at nightWhen driving at high speedWhen the driver behind you is following too closelyWhen your vision of the road is impaired by a large vehicle in front of you
12 FIND OUT MORE. In the next few days observe several driving situations FIND OUT MORE. In the next few days observe several driving situations. Think about the way drivers handle margins of safety, etc when changing lanes.What does the abbreviation SMB mean?S –M –B –If you miss your exit on an expressway due to traffic conditions what should you do? Go to the next exit, NEVER back up on an expressway.Why is it a good practice to keep a safe distance in any situation?So you have time to react in an emergency.SignalMirrorsBlind Spots