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Chapter 14: Driving in City Traffic

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14: Driving in City Traffic"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14: Driving in City Traffic
Start working on the 7 Question on Page 291

2 Chapter 14: Driving in City Traffic
OBJECTIVES: Adjusting to Urban Traffic Following and Meeting Traffic Managing Space in Urban Traffic Special Urban Situations

3 Adjusting to City Traffic
Traffic Complexity Two main factors make city driving difficult Traffic is more dense in urban areas than rural areas. There are more cars, buses, trucks, and pedestrians per mile. City traffic hazards are closer to you than they are in rural areas. Those hazards can quickly block your path.


5 Adjusting to City Traffic
Using the IPDE Process Identify Predict Decide Execute


7 Adjusting to City Traffic
Identify Be vigorous in using your visual skills. “Aim high” and look well ahead of your target area. Check your searching ranges to make sure your front zone is open and you have time to spot things like a line-of-sight restriction.

8 Adjusting to City Traffic
Predict Predict possible points of conflict quickly and gain valuable time to respond. Decide Always be ready to communicate or adjust your vehicle position by changing speed and/or using distance effectively. Execute Be ready to use your vehicle’s controls to make smooth low risk maneuvers in traffic.

9 Following and Meeting Traffic
Following Others An adequate following distance has these advantages: You can see further ahead to get the big picture Others can see you better You have more time to use the IPDE Process You are in a better position to avoid the car ahead if it stops suddenly

10 Following and Meeting Traffic
3-Second Following Distance Provides a safe following distance in most normal situations Pick a fixed checkpoint on the road ahead. Road marks or shadows make good fixed checkpoints When the vehicle ahead of you passes your checkpoint, count: one-thousand-one, one-thousand-two, one-thousand-three, for your three second count Now, check to see if you vehicle is still short of your fixed checkpoint. If not, slow and add more distance

11 Following and Meeting Traffic
3-Second Following Distance Check distance often This works well at all speeds This is not the total stopping distance to avoid hitting a stationary object Increase your distance in adverse driving conditions, or if you need more time to complete the IDPE process


13 Following and Meeting Traffic
3-Second Following Distance Maintain extra distance in these situations You are just learning to drive A tailgating driver has closed your rear zone You are approaching a line-of-sight restriction Traction is low You are carrying a heavy load or pulling a trailer The driver ahead seems unsure You following a motorcycle


15 Following and Meeting Traffic
Looking Beyond the Vehicle Ahead Look over, through, and around cars Be alert for break lights, including high mount break lights Always try to anticipate what the driver ahead is likely to do


17 Following and Meeting Traffic
Areas For Sudden Stop Three high risk areas where closed zones and sudden stop can happen: Intersections where drivers may have to stop for traffic or pedestrians Lanes next to parked vehicles Business driveways with high volume traffic

18 Following and Meeting Traffic
When to Look Away Take these steps to prevent a mistake when looking away Make sure the zone ahead is stable and open. If you are following another vehicle, increase your following distance to more than 3 seconds Lower your speed even further when you have line-of-sight restrictions Keep your eyes moving; take split second glances rather than one long look If you have a passenger, ask them to look for the address

19 Following and Meeting Traffic
Being Followed You are in a high risk closed rear zone when someone tailgates, or follows too closely Tailgaters Are Hazards A tailgater is a hazard because if you have to stop fast, he can hit you from the rear Take these actions to avoid being hit from the rear Increase you following distance to 4 seconds. If you have to stop suddenly you can do it more slowly and give the tailgater more time to respond


21 Following and Meeting Traffic
Tailgaters Are Hazards Move slightly to the right to allow the tailgater to see the traffic in front of you Signal early for turns, stops and lane changes. Flash break lights In extreme situations, change lanes, or pull out of traffic to avoid the tailgater

22 Following and Meeting Traffic
Responding to Oncoming Traffic If a driver closes your front zone by crossing the center line, you must react instantly Reasons for Crossing the Center Line Driver Impairment – drowsy, distracted, confused, intoxicated, or ill Poor Judgment – Misjudge speed, distance, or position Poor Visibility – direct sunlight, blinding headlights, or bad weather

23 Following and Meeting Traffic
Avoiding Conflicts If a vehicle comes at you, take these actions to avoid a collision Slow until the other driver can return to the normal lane Turn on or flash your headlights and blow your horn If your right front zone is open, move to the right to give the oncoming driver more room

24 Managing Space in Urban Traffic
Looking Ahead While Staying Back In addition to looking around your vehicle, look a block or more ahead By looking far ahead, you will be able to spot zone problems in time to adjust your speed and/or position as needed Continue to maintain a a distance of 3 seconds or more to have a good view of the road

25 Managing Space in Urban Traffic
Approaching Traffic Signals Look ahead to detect traffic signals. By doing so you will have more time to respond If the light is red, slow and be ready to stop If the light is green, predict that it will change soon Never speed up to go through a green light

26 Managing Space in City Traffic
Covering the Brake If you are traveling into a situation where you may need to stop quickly, you should cover the brake Take your foot off the accelerator, and hold it over the brake pedal Make sure not to rest your foot on the brake pedal, or ride the brake

27 Managing Space in City Traffic
Take these actions to identify and respond to a parked Vehicles Cover your brake and move left in your lane Look for drivers through the windows of parked Vehicles Be alert for parked vehicles’ brake lights, exhaust, or wheels turned out Lightly tap your horn if needed Be ready to stop or swerve

28 Managing Space in City Traffic
Adjusting Speed Blending into traffic is one of the most common city driving skills you will need. Use these techniques to select your best driving speed

29 Managing Space in City Traffic
Selecting the Best Lane When driving in multilane traffic, use the lane or zone with the fewest hazards. Use these techniques to position your vehicle in multilane traffic Increase your following distance to more than 3 seconds in heavy traffic Adjust your speed and lane position as needed to stay out of other drivers’ blind spots Move to another lane if your front zone closes

30 Managing Space in City Traffic
Changing Lanes Once you start driving in a lane, try to stay in that lane. If you must change lanes, use these steps Use your mirrors to check in your rear zones Signal your change early Quickly check your blind spot Change lanes without slowing Cancel your signal

31 Managing Space in City Traffic
Overtaking and Passing At times you might decide to overtake, or pass, a vehicle ahead Use the lane changing procedure and drive past the slower moving vehicle Signal briefly and return to your lane

32 Managing Space in City Traffic
Special Traffic Lanes To help move rush hour travel, many cities have special lanes for bus and/or carpool drivers called HOV lanes (High Occupancy Vehicles) You must have more than one person in a vehicle to use these lanes during designated times These lanes save time and fuel, and reduce pollution and parking problems

33 Special City Situations
Driving on Two-Way Streets Most city roadways are two-way streets with one lane going in each direction Many city intersections do not have traffic controls Some intersections have special left-turn lanes If you turn left at an uncontrolled intersection, you must yield to oncoming traffic

34 Special City Situations
Driving on One-Way Streets One-way streets can move a greater volume of traffic with fewer conflicts than two-way streets Identifying One-Way Streets One Way signs are posted on most one-way streets All moving traffic and parked vehicles point in the same direction Broken white lines are used to separate lanes Most traffic signs will be facing the same direction

35 Special City Situations
Entering One-Way Streets To turn right on a one-way street, turn from the right lane to the nearest right lane To turn left onto a one-way street, position yourself in the nearest left hand lane and make a sharp left turn into the nearest lane going left

36 Special City Situations
Lane Choice on One-Way Streets Try to avoid a lane next to parked vehicles Use center lane to reduce possible conflicts When you plan to turn, position yourself ahead of time. Move into the right or left lane at least one block before you turn

37 Special City Situations
Leaving One-Way Streets To turn left from a one-way street, position your vehicle in the far left lane To turn right from a one-way street, position your vehicle in the far right hand lane On some one-way streets, the outside lane may be for turning only

38 Special City Situations
Signaling Wrong-Way Drivers If you encounter a vehicle headed in the wrong on a one-way street, slow, steer right, and sound your horn to warn the other driver

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