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Culture and Social Behavior: Cross-Cultural Social Psychology.

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Presentation on theme: "Culture and Social Behavior: Cross-Cultural Social Psychology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Culture and Social Behavior: Cross-Cultural Social Psychology

2 Interpersonal Communication Context vs. Content Cultural Orientation  Context of communication:  level and tone of voice;  looking or not looking into the eyes (contact);  distance between bodies;  posture and body orientation;  extent of body touching, including what parts of the body are being touched.

3 Culture and Communication  Context cultures - societies that are homogeneous, relatively simple, and where people have to maintain good long-term relationships with others.  Content culture – everything is spelled out (said) clearly and explicitly. Nothing is left open to interpretation.

4 Social Behavior Patterns Work by Fiske revealed four types of social behavior patterns across cultures. 1. Community Sharing:  People know each other well;  family life is the closet metaphor;  what is mine is yours, intimacy, oneness, cooperation and self-sacrifice are typical behaviors.

5 Social Behavior Patterns (cont.) 2. Authority Ranking:  Obedience, admiration, and giving and following orders without questioning are typical behaviors.  The relationship between a general and a soldier is the closest metaphor.

6 Social Behavior Patterns (cont.) 3. Equality Matching:  Social interaction between totally equal friends is the best metaphor.  Typical behaviors – taking turns, dividing things evenly, one person, one vote, etc.

7 Social Behavior Patterns (cont.) 4. Market Pricing:  Social relationships based on a cost-benefit analysis  “I’ll be your friend if it pays to do so”

8 Collectivism vs. Individualism  As we have said again and again in this class, this continuum provides a parsimonious yet highly predictive culturally relevant construct for understanding all sorts of behavior patterns across cultures.

9 Perception and Attractiveness  Attractiveness  Cultural differences in the definition of attractiveness can influence the formation of impressions.  i.e. in Japan, attractiveness was correlated with large eyes, small mouths, and small chins. However, in Korea-large eyes, small and high noses, and thin and small faces define attractiveness.

10 Perception and Attractiveness (cont.)  Person Perception  Recognition of Faces  People tend to recognize others of their own perceived race more accurately.

11 Love and Intimacy  What attracts people to selecting a mate?  Early 1950 studies indicated proximity  Recent studies indicate physical attractiveness  Matching Hypothesis-people of equal physical characteristics are likely to select each other.  Similarity Hypothesis-people similar in age, race, religion, social class, education, intelligence, attitudes, and physical attractiveness form intimate relationships.  Reciprocity hypothesis-people tend to like others who like them.

12 Love and Intimacy (cont.)  Hatfield and Berscheid’s Theory of Love  Passionate Love - absorption of another that includes sexual feelings and intense emotion.  Companionate Love - warm, trusting, and tolerant affection for another whose life is intertwined with yours.  Sternberg’s Theory  Seven different forms of love depending on the presence or absence of passionate love, intimacy, or commitment.

13 Love and Intimacy (cont.)  Differences Across Cultures  Romantic love valued more in America and Germany than in Japan (Simmons et al., 1986)  Europeans value love more than South Africans and Indians, the South Africans place higher value on equality and peace (Furnham, 1984)

14 Cross Cultural Similarities : Buss studies (1989 and 1994) - More than 10,000 respondents in 37 different cultures completed 2 questionnaires (factors in choosing a mate and preferences concerning potential mates) - In 36 of 37 cultures, females rated financial prospects as more important than did males. - In all 37, males preferred younger mates and females preferred older mates. - In 34, males rated good looks as more important - In 23, males rated chastity as more important

15 Attributions for Social Behavior  Casual Attributions are the inferences people make about the causes of events regarding and their own and others’ behaviors.  Traditional American Attributions  Kelley’s Covariation Model - people attribute behavior to causes that are present when the behavior occurs and absent when the behavior does not.

16 Attributions (cont.)  People consider 3 types of information when making attributions:  Consistency – is a person’s behavior consistent across situation or is it situation specific?  Distinctiveness – is a person’s behavior unique to the specific target?  Consensus – would other persons faced with the same situation behave is a similar manner?

17 Attributions (cont.)  Weiner’s Theory of Stability  Describes four types of attributions for success and failure: Stable and Unstable, internal and external  I.e. if didn’t get a job you could attribute it to:  1) stable internal factors (lack of ability),  2) stable external factors (too much competition),  3) unstable internal factors (lack of effort), or  4) unstable external factors (bad luck).

18 Attributions (cont.)  Fundamental Attribution Error - a tendency to attribute negative behavior outcome in others to internal factors (lack of ability) and to attribute negative outcomes in ourselves to external factors (unfair test).  Self Serving Bias - a tendency to attribute our own successes to personal factors and our failures to situational factors.  Defensive Attributions – a tendency to blame victims for their misfortune.

19 Cross-Cultural Extensions of Causal Attribution Theories and Research  This is an area where the limitations of American and Western European Psychology have been extremely apparent.  Cultural differences abound.  In fact, most of these theories have failed the universalism test.

20 Aggression  Any act or behavior that hurts another person, either physically or psychologically.  Cross-Cultural Differences  Robbins et al (1972) - countries in hotter climates are associated with higher murder rates.  Terav et al (1998) studied justifications for aggression  Estonians chose instrumental justifications (means to an end)  Finish reported that aggression was fun.

21 Aggression (cont.)  Bond et al (1985) studied aggressive insults and criticisms  Aggressive behaviors was more acceptable in relationships where status and power were unequal for Chinese participants than for Americans.  Cross Cultural Similarities  Across cultures, overt physical and verbal aggression is more prevalent among boys than girls (Tomada et al.)  Acceptance of various forms of aggression are similar across cultures from Spain, Finland, Poland, South Africa, US, Japan, and Iran (Ramirez et al, 2001)

22 Conformity and Compliance  Conformity - yielding to real or imagined social pressure.  Compliance - yielding to social pressure in one’s public behavior, even if one’s private beliefs may not have changed.  Obedience - when people follow direct commands.  Cooperation - ability to work together toward a common goal.

23 Conformity and Compliance (cont.)  Cross-Cultural Research  American bias-negative feelings (Asians value conformity)  Research on child rearing-indicates that Asians and Puerto Ricans were found to value conformity and obedience  Garza et. al. Studies

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