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Organizational Behaviour

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Presentation on theme: "Organizational Behaviour"— Presentation transcript:

1 Organizational Behaviour
The Individual: Perceptions, Attributions, and Behaviour

2 Perception The process of interpreting messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment

3 Bruner’s Perceptual Process Model
In unfamiliar situations cues are used to categorize the target.

4 Perception: What is perceived?
Selective attention is a function of : The characteristics of the perceiver (e.g. past experiences, motivational state, emotional state) Perceptual Defense - We protect ourselves against threatening information The characteristics of the target (salience) ambiguity The characteristics of the situation (salience)

5 Once initial perceptions are created:
Selective: ignore other available cues Constancy: tend to perceive the target in the same way over time and across situations (initial impressions) Consistency: tend to select, ignore and distort cues so to create a homogeneous picture

6 Perceptual Biases Implicit Personality Theory: which personality characteristics go together Stereotyping: assume characteristics by virtue of the category that they fall into Projection: assume others are like ourselves Primacy and Recency: early memory and recent memory

7 Smith, Jones, and Kelly were absent from work today
Smith, Jones, and Kelly were absent from work today. To what do you attribute the cause? Smith is absent a lot, his peers are seldom absent, and he was absent a lot in his previous job. Jones is absent a lot, her peers are also absent a lot, but she was almost never absent in her previous job. Kelley is seldom absent, his co-workers are seldom absent, and he was seldom absent in his previous job.

8 Attribution Theory Explaining the cause of behavior
Distinctiveness information: occur across a variety of situations (does target respond in X fashion generally or only in situation A) Consistency information: occur regularly (does target respond in X fashion at all times or only occasionally). Consensus information: act the same as the majority of people (Do most others respond in X fashion). (used or underused???) Attribution of cause will depend on the answers (what are our choices?).

9 Attribution Biases Fundamental Attribution Error: Tendency to underestimate situational factors & overestimate dispositional factors in controlling behaviour Self-Serving Bias: Tendency to attribute success to your own efforts, ability, & character, and to attribute failure to external factors such as luck, task difficulty, etc. Actor-Observer Effect: Tendency to be more sensitive to the situational events that effect your behaviour while others will be more likely to make dispositional attributions

10 Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
When our expectations about another person cause that person to act in a way that is consistent with our expectations. Steps: Expectations formed about future performance Behaviour toward the person is consistent with our expectations Effects are produced on the person’s beliefs (self-efficacy), motivations and performance Behaviour fulfills expectations and reinforces original perceptions

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