Presentation on theme: "Organizational Behaviour"— Presentation transcript:
1 Organizational Behaviour The Individual:Perceptions, Attributions, and Behaviour
2 PerceptionThe process of interpreting messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment
3 Bruner’s Perceptual Process Model In unfamiliar situations cues are used to categorize the target.
4 Perception: What is perceived? Selective attention is a function of :The characteristics of the perceiver (e.g. past experiences, motivational state, emotional state)Perceptual Defense - We protect ourselves against threatening informationThe characteristics of the target (salience)ambiguityThe characteristics of the situation (salience)
5 Once initial perceptions are created: Selective: ignore other available cuesConstancy: tend to perceive the target in the same way over time and across situations (initial impressions)Consistency: tend to select, ignore and distort cues so to create a homogeneous picture
6 Perceptual BiasesImplicit Personality Theory: which personality characteristics go togetherStereotyping: assume characteristics by virtue of the category that they fall intoProjection: assume others are like ourselvesPrimacy and Recency: early memory and recent memory
7 Smith, Jones, and Kelly were absent from work today Smith, Jones, and Kelly were absent from work today. To what do you attribute the cause?Smith is absent a lot, his peers are seldom absent, and he was absent a lot in his previous job.Jones is absent a lot, her peers are also absent a lot, but she was almost never absent in her previous job.Kelley is seldom absent, his co-workers are seldom absent, and he was seldom absent in his previous job.
8 Attribution Theory Explaining the cause of behavior Distinctiveness information: occur across a variety of situations (does target respond in X fashion generally or only in situation A)Consistency information: occur regularly (does target respond in X fashion at all times or only occasionally).Consensus information: act the same as the majority of people (Do most others respond in X fashion).(used or underused???)Attribution of cause will depend on the answers (what are our choices?).
9 Attribution BiasesFundamental Attribution Error: Tendency to underestimate situational factors & overestimate dispositional factors in controlling behaviourSelf-Serving Bias: Tendency to attribute success to your own efforts, ability, & character, and to attribute failure to external factors such as luck, task difficulty, etc.Actor-Observer Effect: Tendency to be more sensitive to the situational events that effect your behaviour while others will be more likely to make dispositional attributions
10 Self-Fulfilling Prophecy When our expectations about another person cause that person to act in a way that is consistent with our expectations. Steps:Expectations formed about future performanceBehaviour toward the person is consistent with our expectationsEffects are produced on the person’s beliefs (self-efficacy), motivations and performanceBehaviour fulfills expectations and reinforces original perceptions