Presentation on theme: "GENDER ISSUES ACADEMIC YEAR 2013-2014 Gender and the welfare state."— Presentation transcript:
GENDER ISSUES ACADEMIC YEAR 2013-2014 Gender and the welfare state
The debate on the welfare state and the relevance of gender Debate on Espig-Andersen classification of welfare systems (de-commodification and equalitarianism-conservation of differences). Jane Lewis absence of gender Orloff (1993) commodification is good for women- autonomy - lone mothers IV model role of the family (Ferrera) Crisis of welfare increase in demand of care (demography) vs decrease in the supply of care. Revision in Espig-Andersen later works de- familization as a 3° dimension for classifying welfare sisytems
CARE Daly and Rake “Care is defined with reference to the activities and relations involved in caring for the ill, the elderly and the dependent young. It is at the same time a form of interpersonal relation and a social..necessary activity” (2003,p.49). It is particularistic (it pertains to intimate human relations) but it is also general. It is a work but it has also a moral element. looking at the welfare systems and their transformation under the point of view of care
Policy instruments to support care a) measures based on the provision of TIME (maternal and parental leaves,flexible regulation of working time); b) measures based on the provision of MONEY (family allowances, fiscal benefits for families, vauchers to buy care from the market- or no-profit sectors). c) measures based on the provision of SERVICES (crèches, school meals, nursing homes for the elederly) substituting the provision of care by the family or the market.
Macro-level Welfare systems Micro-level Families Conceptual reference The division of care work (as work, as responsibility, as costs ) between state, market, family, local community The distribution of care (as work, as responsibility, as costs ) between the individuals in the family and the community and the type of state support for care and careres. Empirical indicators -Infrastructures for care (sevices and money) -Their distribution betewwen social spheres ((welfare mix) -who provides care -who receives the available benefits -what is the realtion between carer and cared -in what economic, social and normative conditions care is provided? -the modes of economic activity of women in caring age Trajectories of change +O-+O- State Market Family Community - a change in the distribution of activities of care -change in the identity of carers -change in the conditions in which care is provided and in the role of the state. -a change in the relation between carer and cared. : Daly e Lewis .
Gender and welfare the point of view of work The welfare state impacts on gender relations in the labor market on the demand and on the supply side. On the supply side policies that support care (ex. Childcare services, parental leaves), fiscal policies, influence the supply of women’s labor force. On the demand side, the influence of welfare is mainly in the job creation in the service sector (state or market provided services).
Welfare and work Jane Lewis’ typology (1992) A strong version of the male bread-winner model, including UK, Ireland, but also Germany, Austria and the South of Europe ; A moderate version (modified male bread- winner systems),identified in the cases of France and Belgium, where policies of support to the families and to fertility help the participation of women to the labor market ; A weak version (weak male bread-winner model) typical of North-European countries..
Typology of Rosmary Crompton [1999; 2006] based on Total Social Organization of Labor TOSL) TOSL can be located on a continuum traditional-less traditional: 1)The most traditional model :male breadwinner/female carer. 2)The model in which the man works full-time and the woman part-time one-and-half breadwinner 3) The model with two workers families where the work of care is in part provided through public services dual earner/state carer 4) The model with two workers families where the work of care is in part provided through market services :dual earner/market carer 5) The least traditional model in wich both parents are breadwinners and family carer dual earner-dual carer
Gender regimes-welfare regimes Gender regime is the configuration of gender relations associated with a type of welfare system. A gender regime is defined by a type of organization of gender relations associated to a specific policy logic [Sainsbury 1999, 77]. Public policies are influenced by gender norms (regarding gender roles) and in turn influence gender roles through providing the context of constraints and opportunities in which women and men make their choices regarding work and care.
Gender symmetry- Gender Asymmetry of welfare states E. Addis (2000) A welfare system is gender symmetric when it encourages men and women to similar pattern of participation to the labour market and the work of care. A welfare system is gender asymmetric if it encourage women and me to different roles and behavior regarding work and care: men to take up paid work and women to take up entirely the responsibility for care (traditional gender roles). Symmetry and asymmetry can be the outcome of deliberate effort from the state to support a certain configuration of gender roles or of state abstention from support to the family.
SymmetricAsymmetric Strong state intervention R1R3 Weak state intervention R2R4
Operationalization Finding indicators for gender symmetry –asymmetry and state effort. gender symmetry –asymmetry gender employment gap -> men’s employment rate- women’s employment rate absolute or weighted with the hours worked by men and women (in Full time equivalent- FTE) State effort : public expenditure for family policy as a percentage of GNP Easily accessible data : OECD, Eurostat
Early 2000s ABeFinFrGerGrIrItLuNlPorR.USp Men and women Work full time 4743635237473840276744 Only man at work222521252644453521 43 Man full time/woman part time 27247162851321447309 Both part-time or woman full- time man part-time 13222224121 Only woman at work45757224435
What about Care work? Rate of time devoted to care work by male and female partners in the couple
Poverty in single parent families and in standard families (mid 2000s)