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The Scandinavian and the Anglo-Saxon Models

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1 The Scandinavian and the Anglo-Saxon Models
GENDER ISSUES ACADEMIC YEAR Maria A. Confalonieri Gender and the Welfare State The Scandinavian and the Anglo-Saxon Models

2 The Nordic Model “Gender equality across paid work , care work, income, time and voice” (Pascall, Lewis 2004) Equal participation to the labor market Sharing of family responsibilities Children benefits De-familization of care High representation of women, effective gender equality bodies

3 Shared values and political goals
Equality, solidarity, universalism Inclusive citizenship Equality conceived as equality of condition :equitable distribution of material resource in order to promote well being and allow everyone to flourish (Levitas 2004)

4 The origins of the women’s friendly welfare state
The critical juncture : Debate on demography in the early decades of the XX century. In all European countries : how to sustain the birth-rate? Original policy approach in Sweden (Myrdal and Myrdal): supporting family welfare and women’s works

5 Sweden Family friendly policies since the 1930s
1948-universal benefit for children Expansion since the 60s Hegemony of the Social-Democratic Party in power from 1932 to 1988 with a share of votes between 42 an 50%

6 Consolidation since the Sixties
Economic growth and labour demand : women instead of immigrants Trade-unization of women and women’s vote for socialdemocratic parties supporting the service-oriented welfare model

7 The virtouos circle of the Nordic welfare state
Expansion of state provided services Socialdemocracy In government Expansion of women’s participation to the labor market because of job creation and increased availability of women for paid work Trade-unionization of Women. Women’s support for Socialdemocracy for paid work

8 Childcare as right to early education
Early education as a children’s entitlement Standards defined by national law on education 2000- family contribution not over 3% of family income Long hours (7-18,30)

9 Parental leave Longest and most genoursly compensated
Since 1974 parental leave also for fathers 13 months 80% of salary -3 to the father non-transferable Fathers’ take up 42% (average duration 1month) Fiscal bonus if the leave is shared Flexibility

10 Family benefits Universal benefits for children  cover 1/3 of the cost of a child and 1/5 of the cost of a teen-ager Means-tested benefit for housing costs (30% of families with children)

11 Denmark Introduction in the 20-30s: legal equality, equal pay and employment rights, provision for poor families and single mothers. Expansion 60-70s

12 Denmark 1970-Universal benefit for children
Service intensive-1/2 expenditure for family policies in services. Childacare 90% 1-2 years old -Family fees not over 25% of actual costs Parental leave can be shared by parents: 64 weeks and 32 with a coverage of 90% of salary but limited take-up by fathers. Daddy leave (2 weeks) introduced but removed in 2002

13 Finland Universal child benefit in 1948.
Parental leave 26 weeks 66% of salary weeks with 350 euro per month. Place in crèches or childacare home allowance universal right for children under 3 Childcare fees  not over 15% of costs

14 Libera-Anglo-Saxon Liberal creed (self determination of families, value of self-reliace) Opposition of the Trade Unions to family benefits (focus on male wage as family wage). Early leagal and political equality of women 1945 Child benefit only ( modest) universal benefit

15 60-80 Declining provision of childcare
Increase rate of participation of women to the labour market and diffusion of two-earners family model Solo mothers poverty and welfare dependency

16 The paradigm shift with the New Labour
Policy frame “social investement” welfare state focus on social esclusion and child poverty (1 out of 8) equal opportunities and welfare through work National Child Strategy and Sure Start ( ) eliminate child poverty by 2020 Support for children’s cost (mainly tax-benefits) Activation of parents (New Deal for Lone parents) Childcare

17 Ireland Catholic + liberal tradition- strong breadwinner model
Legal discrimination of women Stigmatizing measures for lone mothers

18 Ireland since 1990s Irish “economic miracle” new resources
Growing participation of women to the labour market Improvement in family and child allowances One parent family benefit (cumulate with income from work) Prental leave benefit still not generous (EU minima) Childcare - financial effort  end 2000s 20% 0-3 fiscal benefits for hiring baby sitters

19 U.S. Liberal model High participation of women to the labour market- low segregation (both horizontal and vertical) and relatively low gender wage gap.-autonomy Inequality in the quality of (market provided) care.

20 US retreat from Maternalism (Orloff 2006)
Policy legacy : Residualism: since the ’30 benefits for poor families (AFDC). Since the ’70 __> increasing participation of women to paid work. Strong anti-discrimination and equal opportunity policies (Courts) Due to immigration supply of low paid market provided care services Since the 80s : beneficiaries of AFDC mostly black solo mothers and debate on welfare dependency (“welfare queens”). 1996  removal of AFDC. “Activation” welfare through work . Enphasis on freedom of choice by the families Tax benefits for families that provide for the costs of raising children .

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