Presentation on theme: "Jainism: The Religion Jainism is an ascetic religion of India that teaches the immortality and pilgrimage of the soul, denies the existence of a supreme."— Presentation transcript:
1 Jainism: The ReligionJainism is an ascetic religion of India that teaches the immortality and pilgrimage of the soul, denies the existence of a supreme being and emphasizes the art of non-violence.
2 JAINISM Response to Hinduism and rejection of castes system “Founder”—Mahavira or the last of 23 foundersTirthankaras—“ford builders” or “crossing builders”
3 Tirthankaras—“ford builders” or “crossing builders”
4 Origins of JainismThe exact place where Jainism started is not confirmed, but India is most commonly referred to as the place of origin.Jainism, as a religion, was, at various times, found all over South Asia including Sri Lanka and what are now Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma and Afghanistan.Jainism started out in the sixth century B.C as a protest against the overdeveloped rituals of Hinduism. The actual date is still questioned, but it is believed that it started no earlier than 850 B.C (7th-5th Century B.C).
5 JainismJainism is an ancient religion from India that teaches that the way to liberation and bliss is to live lives of harmlessness and renunciationThe essence of Jainism is concern for the welfare of every being in the universe and for the health of the universe itself
6 History of Jainism Jainism doesn't have a single founder Religious truth has been revealed at different times by a tirthankara, which means a teacher who “shows the way”.Other religions call such a person a 'prophet'.As great omniscient teachers, tirthankaras accomplished moksha and then teach others how to achieve it.
7 The founders of Jainism 24 Tirthankaras (“ford maker”): great teachersGoing back countless thousands of years before recorded historyMahavira (“great hero”) – the 24th and final Tirthankara – reformer of ancient JainismNataputta VardhamanaLived BCE in northeast India30 years as student (never married)12 years as ascetic renunciant30 years as spiritual teacher (tirthankara)
8 Tirthankaras appears in the world to teach the way to moksha, or liberation.not an incarnation of the God.great omniscient teachers who lived at various times in man's cultural history.accomplished the highest spiritual goal of existence Each new tirthankara preaches the same basic Jain philosophy24 tirthankaras during this present ageSvetambara Jains believe that tirthankaras can be men or women, but Digamber Jains believe that women can't be tirthankaras
9 Tirthankaras Parshva: four of the five Jain principles Mahavira Not the founder of Jainismworld's most recent tirthankara (and will be the last one in this age).born as Vardhamana in north east India in 599 BCEa prince, the son of King Siddhartha and Queen Trishalalive the life of an ascetic, or a sadhanaextremely long, arduous periods of fasting and meditation.attained Kevalnyan, enlightenmenttaught the path he had discovered to other seekers.Mahavira added the principle of chastityestablished a community of 14,000 monks and 36,000 nuns before he died.
10 Jainism: Tirthankaras In what Jains call the 'present age' there have been 24 tirthankaras - although there is little evidence for the existence of most of these.A tirthankara appears in the world to teach the way to moksha, or liberation.One such tirthankara was Mahavira ( BCE), regarded as the man who gave Jainism its present form
11 Jainism History Jainism: founded by Mahavira in the sixth century BCE contains elements of Hinduism and Buddhismpractice non-violence or non-injury
13 Mahavira ca. 599-527 BCE Parallels Buddha’s life Family wealth vs. povertyJoined asceticsBecame far more extremeAhimsa yields true releaseAhimsa produces Jina (release from this life or conqueror over attachment, hence the name Jain)
14 Jainism: Early life of Mahavira Mahavira was originally born as Vardhamana in north east IndiaHe was a prince, thus a member of the kshatriya (warrior) casteWhen Prince Vardhamana turned 30, not long after the death of both his parents, he left the royal palace to live the life of an ascetic, (one who renounces all worldly pleasures and comforts)
15 BACKGROUNDAt age 30, Mahavira renounced all his wealth, property, wife, family, pleasuresFasted 2 days without waterTook off clothes except for a cloth around his shoulderTore out hair in 5 handfulsVowed to neglect his body and suffer all painEventually gave up his cloth too (gave it to someone else who needed it)At the age of thirty Mahavira renounced all his wealth, property, wife, family, relatives, and pleasures. In a garden of the village Kundapura at the foot of an Ashoka tree, no one else being present, after fasting two days without water he took off all his clothes, tore out the hair of his head in five handfuls, and put a single cloth on his shoulder. He vowed to neglect his body and with equanimity to suffer all calamities arising from divine powers, people, or animals. Having already attained before marriage the first three levels of knowledge (knowledge from the senses and mind, knowledge from study, and knowledge from intuition), at this initiation it was said he attained the fourth level of knowledge that includes the psychological movements of all sentient beings.Thus Mahavira became homeless. As he was leaving the garden, a Brahman beggar, who had missed out on the last year of Mahavira's almsgiving, asked him for alms; he gave him half of the garment on his shoulder. After thirteen months he gave up clothes altogether.
16 “Neglecting his body, the venerable ascetic Mahavira meditated on his self, in blameless lodgings and wandering, in restraint, kindness, avoidance of sinful influence, chaste life, in patience, freedom from passion, contentment; practicing control, circumspectness, religious postures and acts; walking the path of nirvana and liberation, which is the fruit of good conduct. Living thus he with equanimity bore, endured, sustained, and suffered all calamities arising from divine powers, men, and animals, with undisturbed and unafflicted mind, careful of body, speech, and mind.”(Acharanga Sutra)
17 Mahavira as an asceticHe spent twelve and a half years subjecting himself to extremely long, arduous periods of fasting and meditation- and he attained enlightenment (perfect absolute knowledge)Therefore was later called Mahavira (the name is from maha, great, and vira, hero)He had become a jina- spiritual conqueror
18 Mahavira as teacherFrom that day forward Mahavira taught the path he had discovered to other seekersAfter a final period of intensive fasting he attained nirvana (absolute bliss), and the Moksha (release from samsara)Mahavira added the principle of chastity to make the Five Jain principles (no violence, no lying, no stealing, no possessions)
20 MAHAVIRA AND PARSVAOnce Mahavira recognized as Tirthankara, probably inherited Parsva’s followers
21 Key Figures in Jainism Left: Mahavira picture Top: Mahavira statue Right: Mahavira onLionThroneAbove:Rock image of 24 Tirthankaras
22 Key Figures of JainismVardhamana Mahavira is the most important figure in Jainism as he was the last in line of the Tirthankaras.He was born in 599 B.C. and died in 527 B.C. His birthplace was Kundalpur, India.His life and teachings were dedicated to the art of ahimsa or non-violence, which is the central belief of Jainism.He grew up in India where Hinduism was the dominant religion. He accepted the aspects of Hinduism, but felt that some changes needed to be made.It was he who built up the Jain Church and laid such a firm foundation for it that it has existed almost unchanged for more than twenty-five centuries.
24 JainismThere are about 4 million Jains today, most of them “lay people”Historians consider Jainism to have been founded by Mahavira ( BCE) as a reaction to the conservative Brahminism of the 6th-century BCEIn general, they do NOT accept the Hindu Scriptures or rituals, but they do share a belief in the transmigration of soulsThe most obvious characteristic of them is their devotion to the principle of ahimsa, or non-injurymonks wear a veileven lay people forbidden to drink after sunset
25 Jainism (cont.)Jains are followers of the Jinas, or “tirthankaras” (the ford-makers, who reveal the path to moksha)They believe 24 tirthankaras appear in every half cycleMahavira is the 24th tirthankara in this cycleA contemporary of Buddha, Mahavira renounced the world at the age of 30, and after 12 years as a wandering ascetic achieved enlightenmentHe then converted 12 disciples who structure his teachings into the Jain ScripturesHe died in meditation and became a liberated soul
26 What is Jainism? At least 2500+ years old Followed by million people mostly in IndiaLife affirming but world-denyingSeeks to release the soul from the round of rebirth, to liberate spirit from matterAhimsa – non-violence – is the hallmark of this spiritual disciplineNo creator godSpiritual life is primarily moral rather than ritualistic
27 What is Jainism?LivingJains are followers of JINA, the conqueror of inner enemies.These inner enemies (Kashay) are anger(Krodh), greed(lobh), ego(man) and deceit(maya).These arise out of attachment(rag): leading to greed and pride and aversion(dvesh): leading to deceit and anger.Jainism is a religion of self-help: with out any outside agency - even god coming to the rescue of the soul. The soul is its own destroyer or liberator.
28 Jainism: Key BeliefsAhimsa - The central Jain belief is an agreement to avoid physical violence and conduct that can be mentally and emotionally damaging to oneself or others. It also involves commitment to all life forms on earth and not engaging in practices which may bring harm.Karma – the belief that for every action, there is a consequence.Reincarnation – One’s soul that is reborn into different bodies over the course of many lives.Proper Conduct - Jains are encouraged to make a vow to conduct themselves according to the following principles: 1) Non-violence (ahimsa) 2) Truthfulness 3) Non- Stealing 4) Celibacy 5) Non-possession
29 Jainism: Key BeliefsMoksha - Results in the elimination of the effects of karma in one’s life (achieved through meditation)Atomism - Jains believe that every living thing on the planet possesses a soul or “Jiva”. They also believe that people are bound to act more compassionately if they acknowledge that everything is composed of a spirit or soul.No absolutes - No perspective of any person is wrong, despite the fact that different perspectives have different effects on the specific situation.
30 TEACHINGS OF JAINISM Reincarnation—until one finally breaks the cycle Karma is the glue that sticks you to lifeReduce involvement and one reduces karmaDualism:Jiva=soul=good, pure, eternalAjiva=matter=bad, impure, temporalAsceticism cleanses the soul of the karmaSalvation comes from ones work at releaseGod, prayers, rituals, etc. aren’t necessary
31 Major TenetsEverything is eternal; there is no all-powerful “God” that has created the world.When a living being dies, it is reincarnated.All living beings have souls.The 3 gems.Reverence for the deities (Siddhas, Jinas, and the 24 Tirthankaras).Vegetarianism, or Fruitarianism.The great vows, the Mahavrats.
32 Jain Beliefs: Karma & Reincarnation Karma: impurity of the soul that keeps the soul bound to the cycle of rebirth into matterKarma is built-up through actions in this world: thoughts, words, deeds, attitudesReduce and eliminate karma so as to achieve moksha (nirvana)– release of the soul from the cycles of rebirthHow are we to do this?…
33 ReincarnationAs soon as a person (or any living being) dies, his or her soul is immediately reborn in another life form.If one’s spirituality is such that it should require punishment, a person may be required to spend time in one of seven hells.Unlike most views of hell, each stage of hell becomes increasingly colder. One’s stay in hell is not eternal; once the punishment is sufficient, a person’s soul will be reborn into another life form.If people can escape all karma (good and bad), they will be reborn as a Siddhas, or liberated souls, in the highest level of heaven, where they will be eternally happy and separate from the world.
34 KarmaKarma is the natural moral law of the universe, in which every good or bad action has a corresponding effect on the person doing that action.According to Jainism there are 2 types of Karma . Ghati (destructive) and Aghati (non-destructive), each containing several sub-categories.The goal of Jainism is to liberate one’s soul, to become a Jina (spiritual victor). To become a Jina, one must escape Karma by leading an ascetic and intrinsically pure life.
35 Jain Beliefs: KarmaKarma is the mechanism that determines the quality of lifeThe happiness during a being's present life is the result of the moral quality of the actions of the being in its previous lifeA soul can only achieve liberation by getting rid of all the karma attached to it
36 Jain Beliefs: KarmaThe Jain idea of karma is much more elaborate and mechanistic than that found in some other Indian religionsKarma is a physical substance- think floating dust which sticks to the soul, or as types of atomic particle which are attracted to the soul as a result of our actions, words and thoughts
37 Jain Beliefs: KarmaOn their own, karma particles have no effect but when they stick to a soul they affect the life of that soulWe attract karma particles when we do or think or say things, if we kill something, when we tell a lie, when we steal and so onThe accumulation of karma causes us to have bad thoughts and actions, these bad actions attract more karma, and so on.
38 Avoiding and Removing Karma Karma can be avoided in two ways1. By behaving well - so no karma is attracted2. By having the right mental state - so that even if an action attracts karma, the correct mental attitude of the being means that karma either doesn't stick to that soulThe karma that has built up on the soul can be removed by living life according to the Jain vows.
39 What is Jain Activity?Any activity of body, Speech or Mind that helps us1. Develop disinterest in satisfying the desires of our five senses (control over passions)2. Eliminate anger, ego, deceit, greed (Kashay) within our selves3. Develop a vision to look for only good in others and completely ignore bad in others.-Acharya Haribhadrasuriji ( AD)in ‘Darshanshastra’
40 Key Practices and Rituals Meditation (samayika) - the process of eliminating self-centered thinking and becoming united with the spirit that governs the universeMantras - the Five Homages (panka namaskarais) are recited on a daily basis, usually in the morning; another mantra called ahimsa vikas, helps Jains to pursue a life without violence.Worship - takes place at stone temples or at wooden shrines near the house which resemble the temple itself.Fasting - occurs at mostly festivals and holy days such as Paryushana and Mauna Agyaras
41 Meditations & MantrasMeditation (samayika) is an integral part of Jainism. During meditation and worship, Jains often recite mantras or prayers.The most fundamental of the Jain mantras is the Navkar Mantra.
42 The Navkar Mantra Namo Arihantanum: I bow down to Arihanta Namo Siddhanam: I bow down to SiddhaNamo Ayariyanam: I bow down to AcharyaNamo Uvajjhayanam: I bow down to UpadhyayaNamo Loe Savva-sahunam: I bow down to Sadhu & Sadhvi.Eso Panch Namokaro: These five bowing downs,Savva-pavappanasano: Destroy all the sins,Manglanach Savvesim: Amongst all that is auspicious,Padhamam Havei Mangalam: This Navkar Mantra is the foremost.
43 Key Practices and Rituals Small brooms are carried to sweep insects away from their pathJain nuns and monks do not accept food that is not cooked by themselves, they do not physically touch people of the opposite sex, and they wear simple white clothes or even nothing at all.A disciplined life is expected from all believers of Jainism, not only the monks or the nunsSacred Rituals - performed at the templeThese are some of the rituals:PujaSamayikNamokar Mantra
44 BirthThere are a few simple ritual that are performed after the birth of a childPriyodhbhav Sanskar: ten days of cleansing, during which no rituals are performed, but mantras may be chanted by the priests and offerings received for the child at a temple.Namkaranan Sanskar: the ritual of naming the child, performed on the 11th, 13th, or 29th after birth. The name for a boy is selected from the 1008 Jinasahasranam, and for girls chosen from the names of the woman in the Puranas.
45 Rites of Passage/Puberty Rites The rites of passage/puberty rites (concerning the laity) that Jains practice are not strictly practices of Jainism.Rather they are often the local Hindu customs.These customs are acceptable as long as the do not violate the ethics of Jainism.
46 BaptismThe Jains do not practice baptism. However, they do have rules that must be followed when using water.Water should be filtered before use to prevent harm to living creatures that may be in the waterSome stricter (more spiritual) Jains do not bathe and only use water as necessary
47 Marriage RitualsMarriage is considered a social contract, not a religious practice. The wedding ceremony may be simple or very elaborate.The rituals performed around the time of marriage vary from one community to another, but are numerous and may include some of the following:
48 Marriage Rituals Pre-Wedding - Vagdana: Parents declare intended marriageLaghana Lekhan: marriage negotiation finalizedSagai and Lagna Patrika Vachan: engagement ceremonies/ritualsMatruka and Kulkar Sthapan: gods and goddesses are invoked to bless the coupleWedding Ceremony –Ghudhchadi: groom’s ritual on the day before the weddingVara Ghoda: the groom’s procession to the weddingTorana Vidhi: welcoming ceremony at the weddingParaspara Mukh Avalokana: bride and groom look at each other
49 Marriage RitualsHasta Melap: joining ceremony, priest’s words to the coupleToran Pratishtha: the goddess Lakshmi is honoredVedi Pratishtha: the gods of Kshetras are honoredAgni Sthapan: sacred fire ritual; offerings to the fire godAbisheka: couple’s heads are anointed with waterGotrachar: lineages of the couple are pronouncedGranthi Bandhan: ceremonial tying of the couple togetherAgni Pradakshina: the couple circles the sacred fire four times while reciting a different mantra each time aroundKanyadaan: before the last stage of Agni Pradakshina, the father presents the bride to the groom
50 Marriage RitualsVakshepa: “Lord Adinath was married with this ceremony…”Second Abisheka: priest wishes the couple wellKar-mochan: couple are released, ceremony is endedPost Wedding –Ashirvada: the elders bless the coupleReception: wedding feastSva Graha Aagamana: bride goes to her new home.Jina Grahe Dhan Arpana: alms are given at a Jain temple in thankfulness to the gods
51 Death RitesWhen a person dies, he or she is cremated as soon as possible.The body is placed on a bier and taken to a place where it can be burned without harming any living beings.The body is taken from the bier and covered with wood. The body is covered with ghee, camphor, and sandalwood powder. The last rites are performed by the son of the deceased.The son circles the pyre 3 times while sprinkling water on the body. While chanting the Namokar Mantra, he lights the pyre.After a while, milk is poured over the scorched area and the remains are collected in bags.The remains are placed in hole and sprinkled with salt. The hole is covered and the rituals are over.
52 Jainism New Religion Ritual Unnecessary Nonviolence 500 BC, group of Hindus broke away, founded new religion called JainismLed by teacher Mahavira, Jains thought most Hindus put too much emphasis on ritualRitual UnnecessaryJains thought ritual unnecessaryPeople could achieve moksha by giving up worldly things, carefully controlling actionsNonviolenceCentral to Jain teaching, idea of ahimsa, nonviolenceMost Hindus also practiced ahimsa, but not to same extentJains carefully avoid harming living creatures, are usually vegetarians
53 Other Traits Lifestyle Principles Jains promise to tell only truth Avoid stealingStrive to eliminate greed, anger, prejudice, gossip from livesThese things can prevent person from achieving mokshaMost devout become monks, nuns, give up possessionsLive outdoors, seek shelter only during rainy monthsCover mouths with masks, sweep ground to avoid accidentally killing insectsLifestyleMost Jains not monks, nunsPledge to uphold principles of ahimsa, have careers that do not involve harming of animalsJainism calls for periodic fasting, especially during festivals, on holy days; limiting worldly possessionsPrinciples
54 Jain Beliefs: Spiritual Beings Jina: (conqueror) an enlightened being who has conquered material existence and released the soul from the round of rebirthTirthankara: a jina who is a great spiritual teacherSiddha: a liberated soulThe goal of Jainism: to become a Jina, thus freeing one’s soul from the material realmwe can all become “gods” but these gods do not intervene or respond to petitionary prayer
55 Jain Beliefs: Jiva & Ajiva Jiva = life-giving spirit (soul)Ajiva = inert/non-living matterAll living beings contain soul and are considered Jiva (soul trapped in matter):HumansAnimalsPlantsMicroscopic life-forms trapped in matter (water beings, rock beings, fire beings, air beings)
56 Jain practices: Spiritual Discipline Ahimsa: non-violence to any and all life forms. Intent to do no harm. Strict vegans (avoid all meat and animal products, including milk, eggs, fish and even avoid root vegetables).Aparigraha: non-attachmentAnekantwad: non-hatredAsceticism: to live a monastic life, detached from this world and society – a life of poverty and chastity
57 Unique Teachings of Jainism God is not a Creator, Preserver or Destroyer of the UniverseEvery living being has a potential to become GodPath of liberation is to follow rational perception, rational Knowledge and rational conductConquer your desire by your own effort to attain liberation
58 Unique Teachings of Jainism Proper knowledge of universal substances and fundamental Tattvas are essential for rational perception, knowledge and conductSelf purification, penance, austerity and meditation are essential for rational conduct
59 Unique Teachings of Jainism Universal love (Ahimsa)Anekantvad (Non absolutism)Aparigraha (Non-attachment)
60 Jain hand is the emblem of the Jainism, which symbolizes Ahimsa, nonviolence, the wheel in the center is the wheel of Samsara, the word in the center of the wheel reads “stop.”
61 Other Jain Concepts Ahimsa- Non violence Jains must do their best to avoid any intentional hurt to living thingsJains must be vegetariansIf a Jain's work unavoidably causes harm (e.g. farming) they should try to minimize the harmDoctrine of many-sidedness
62 Ahimsa (Non violence)Ahimsa is disciplined behavior towards every living being Dashvaikalika Sutra (6/9)Absence of violence of any sort towards all beings at all times is Ahimsa. - YogasutraIn its absolute definition, ‘Ahimsa is the absence of evil thoughts, feelings or attitude’
63 Ahimsa (Non violence)Ahimsa is not to be practised at the physical level only but at a mental one as well.In other words, it is stated that there should be no Himsa by ‘ Man ‘ (mind), ‘Vachan’ (speech), or ‘Kaya” (body).Even hurting feelings is himsa.
64 VegetariansBecause of Ahisma, Jains do not believe in harming living beings, which all have souls. This means that they do not eat meat, and many of them do not eat vegetables either.The strictest of the Jains eat only fruits, nuts, and milk, which are acceptable because they are the byproducts of livings beings, not the actual beings themselves.
65 Anekantvad ( Non-absolutism) Expression of Truth (Existent) is Relative or Non-absoluteTruth (Existent) is expressed in many waysOne cannot make definite statement about Truth or Existent, each statement is true in its own limited senseTo understand the nature of Existent, one requires the vision of seeing an entity from all direction which is Anekantvad
66 Fundamental BeliefsThe soul exists in contamination with karmic matter and it longs to be purifiedLiving beings differ due to the varying density and types of karmic matterThe karmic bondage leads the soul through the states of existences (cycles)Karmic fusion is due to our ignorence, nonrestraint, carelessness, passions and activities
67 Fundamental BeliefsViolence to oneself and others results in the formation of the heaviest new karmic matter, whereas helping others with positive nonviolence results into the lightest new karmic matterAusterity forms the karmic shield against new karmons as well as setting the decaying process in the old karmic matter
68 Symbolssymbol of the seventh Tirthankara. In the Svetambar Jain tradition, it is also one of the symbols of the ashra-mangalas (Eight Auspicious Signs).a wheel on the palm of a hand, symbolizing Ahimsa (non-violence).Triratna signify the three jewels of Jainism
69 The Sign of JainismThis is the sign of Jainism. Each part of the sign symbolizes an important principle or belief of Jainism.This symbol was adopted by all the sects of Jainism in honor of the 2500th anniversary of Lord Mahavira’s spiritual liberation.
70 Swastika and the Open Pal Symbol of JainismSwastika and the Open PalThe outline of this picture represents the universe in the Jain description. It is supposed to resemble a person standing on his feet with his feet apart, and the arms are rested on the hips.The swastika represents the soul in which it can be reborn and reincarnated into during the time it is in the universe.There are three dots above the swastika. They represent Right Faith, Right Knowledge, and Right Conduct. The three dots are the three jewels of Jain philosophy in which they believe liberation can be found.The half moon is where the liberated soul is being kept, and the dot inside of it is the liberated pure soul.The hand below the swastika is a gesture of blessing and protection.Inside the hand, there is a wheel of 24 spokes, and this represents Jinas. In the middle of the wheel, a word is inscribed which says: “ahimsa”
71 How to Become a JainJainism is a distinctly Indian religion, although anyone who is willing to meet their strict requirements can become a Jain.The most fundamental belief of Jainism is Ahisma, complete non-violence toward all living beings. No other religion takes the principle of non-violence to the extent that the Jains do.
72 Requirements All Jains must: Seek peace with their surroundings and be as non-violent as possible, Ahisma.Be truthful in everything, Satya.Deal honestly with people, they must not steal, Asteya.Practice the 3 Gems:Right faith, right conduct, right knowledge. The most important of these is faith, after it is obtained the others will follow.
73 FIVE VOWS OF JAINISM Ahimsa Speak the truth Don’t steal Celibacy Renounce attachments
74 The Five Principles (Vows): Non-violence (Ahimsa):complete avoidance of harmAll living beings are equalTruthfulness (Satya):to always speak the truth in a harmless mannerNon-stealing (Asteya):this also includes avoidance of greed and exploitationChastity (Brahmacharya):monogamy and faithfulness are importantDetachment from material things (Aparigraha):to detach from people, places, and material things.
75 Monks and NunsMonks and nuns must base their lives on mahavrats, or the “great vows”. These include:Not injuring any life forms, AhismaTruthfulness, SatyaNot stealing, AsteyaCelibacy, BrahmachangaNot accepting personal possessions, Aparigraha
76 Five Monastic Vows: Ahimsa: non-violence (do not harm others) Satya: truth (do not lie)Achaurya: non-stealingBrahmacharya: celibacy & chastityAparigraha: non-attachment/non-ownership (poverty)
77 Literature Agamas based on Mahavira teachings. orally compiled by his disciples into various Sutras (texts)orally passed on from teachers (acaryas or gurus) to the disciples for several centuries.The scholars date the composition of Jain agamas at around 6th to 3rd century BCE.
78 JAIN SCRIPTURES SIDDHANTA – 45 volumes Composed and compiled during 1000 years between death of Mahavira and Valabhi Council in 5th C, CEVernacular language vs. Sanskrit
79 ANGAS and UPANGAS 11 Angas = main texts Books of Conduct Books of Critique12 Upangas = secondary limbsNarratives that pass on teachings for lay followers
80 OTHER IMPORTANT WRITINGS: Biographies of Tirthankaras (Kalpa Sutra)Numerous commentaries and philosophical writingsAstronomy, study of logic, psychologyDevotional poetry, epics and legends
81 Communion with the Gods & Holy Ones The Jains commune with their deities by worshiping in temples, meditating, and reciting mantras.The Jains worship idols of Jinas, or “Spiritual Victors”. The most important of these Jinas are the Tirthankaras, or “Ford-Makers”, the 24 founders of Jainism.
82 Worship of the Jinas The Jains worship publicly in stone temples. They worship by meditating, chanting mantras, and by gazing at and anointing the 24 images of the Tirthankaras, the “Ford Makers”.They also pay homage to all Jinas, or “spiritual victors”.
83 Holidays Mahavira Jayanti Mar 28 The birth anniversary of Lord Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankar and the "founder" of modern JainismParyushanaSep 5The most important Jain festival, it consists ofeight (Swetambara) or ten (Digambara) days ofintensive fasting and repentance. A time of reflection.DiwaliNov 5Diwali, the festival of lights, is the most popular of all the festivals from South Asia. It is an occasion for celebrations by Hindus as well as Jains and Sikhs.
84 JAIN SECTS White Clad—will wear white clothes (north) Sky Clad—nudist (south)Sub-group of the White Clads—reject temples
85 Jain Monastics: Two major sects Digambara (“sky clad”)Wear no clothesLive alone or in small groups in the forestsAdmit only men
87 Women religion of religious equality, devoted to recognising the rights of all living creaturesThe sectarian divideThe Difambara Jain sect believes that women cannot achieve liberation without being reborn as men first. The Svetambara sect disagrees.Nakednessnakedness is an essential element of the road to liberation.Mahavira himself, set an example of total nudity that Digambaras believe monks should follow.This ban on female nakedness is partly intended to protect both men and women:cause men to experience sexualfeel ashamed of being naked.prevent the disruptive consequences of allowing women to walk around naked.
88 WomenAhimsa and womenDigambaras also believe that women are inherently himsic (harmful).menstrual blood kills micro-organisms living in the female body.female body is less non-violent than a male bodyImpuritymenstrual blood is a sign of impurity.Attachmentnature is to care for children and other dependants
89 Jainism Monastic: Two Sects Jain monks commit to the Great Vows:non-injury (ahisma)truth-speaking (satya)sexual abstinence (brahmacharya)non-stealing (asteya)detachment from persons, places, and things (aparigraha)Lay people take the “lesser vows” which try to apply the great vows to more “normal” modes of living: e.g., strict vegetarianism, no work that involves the deliberate destruction of life (e.g., hunting no, farming okay).In the fourth century CE a major split occurred:Digambaras: all possessions, including clothing are hindrance to liberationShvetambaras: detachment is in the mind (and not wearing clothes can also cause injury; e.g., if you light a fire to stay warm)The only objects a Digambara monk is allowed to carry are a water-pot and a fly-whisk of peacock feathers.
90 Jain Monastics: Two major sects Svetambara (“white clad”)Wear white robesLive in communityAdmit both men and womenSome wear face masks to protect minute life forms from harm
91 SCHISMS: Svetambaras (white clad) Protest that external signs (i.e., clothing) are insignificantView Mahavira’s decision as an option but not a requirement
93 OTHER DIFFERENCES: Position of women: Svetambaras: women capable of becoming Tirthankaras(19th Tirthankara, Malli, was a woman)Women ordersDigambaras: women must first be reborn as menNo women ordersAlso, how many of 45 ANGAS = scripture
95 Other Jain ConceptsStrict Jains sects went so far as to practice ascetic nudity (this was a kind of asceticism– physical suffering so one could learn to overcome it); they would not eat anything still attached to a plant; only seeds and fruits that had fallen off might be eaten.Jains might sweep in front of them as they walked so as not to step on bugs
97 Lay Jainism (non-monastic) Householders: marry and have childrenA simple life but not ascetic (may take temporary monastic vows)Modified vows (five plus seven more) to guide life in this worldMaintain Vegan dietDo not expect to achieve moksha in this life (it takes full asceticism and monastic life to hope to become a Jina)
98 Lay Jainism: religious practices Make pilgrimages to sacred sites (related to the lives of the Tirthankaras)Attend templesRevere the TirthankarasObserve holy days:Mahavir Jayanti (April; commemorating the birth of Mahavira)Paryushana Parva (Aug. – Sept.; a festival of fasting and forgiveness)Mahavir Nirvan (Diwali) (Oct. – Nov.; commemorates the liberation [death] of Mahavira)
99 Political Influence Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi a Jain some of his ideas on politics come fromJainism (from the 5 principles)pioneered satyagraha (truthfulness).defined as resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience, a philosophy firmly founded upon ahimsa or total nonviolence.helped India to gain independenceinspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world.
100 Economic Influenceset a limit to one’s own needs and whatever surplus one may accumulate beyond these needs should be donated to charities.keeps in check the concentration of wealth and paves the way for its wide and more even distribution.the growing gulf between the rich and the poor can be peacefully bridged.the fair distribution of wealth is essential.business dealings must be conducted in the non-acquisitive spirit of aparigraha.
101 Is Jainism Growing?There are an estimated 4 million Jains in the world.Jainism is not a fast growing religion, although there has been a small increase in adherents in the U. S. and U. K. in the last 40 years.Jains do not actively seek to convert others to Jainism, rather they are peaceful and accepting towards all peoples and religions.
102 Jainism in the 21st Century As of early 21st century, there are 4.5 million followers.Most Jains live in India, with smaller populations in Canada, United Kingdom, and the United States.Jainism has been an influence for the Indian culture for over 2500 years and has contributed to Indian philosophy and logic, art and architecture, mathematics, astronomy and astrology, and literature.Jainism’s culture possibly influenced the religion of Buddhism today.There is little question that Jainism influenced the great Hindu Mohandas Gandhi.Even though it isn’t well known, Jainism has affected spiritual development of the world.
116 Similarities with Buddhism Tolerant other religionsKarmaIndiaAround the same timeSame backgound story for founder or prophetSocial equalityNirvanaLiberationNon-violence
117 Jainism on the Web: Jainworld.com: http://www.jainworld.com/ Jainism Literature Center (from Harvard University’s “Pluralism Project”):Fundamentals of Jainism:Jainism4u.com:Jainism Heritage Centres, “your guide to Jain heritage centres across the globe”: