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Anatomy of female reproductive system

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1 Anatomy of female reproductive system
Zhao Aimin

2 Bony pelvis Sacrum(骶骨) Coccyx(尾骨) Coxae(髋骨) Ilium(髂骨) Ischium(坐骨)

3 Pelvis Sacrum and coccyx posteriorly Ischium and pubis bilaterally
Falase pelvis (major) True pelvis (minor) Sacrum and coccyx posteriorly Ischium and pubis bilaterally and anteriorly To surport the pregnancy Bounded by lumbar vertebrae posteriorly, iliac fossa bilaterally abdominal wall anteriorly

4 The pelvis plane Four planes The pelvic inlet: the greatest
The midplane:the least The pelvic outlet(two planes)

5 Pelvic inlet Posteriorly by promontory of sacrum
Bilaterally by linea of iliac-pubis Anteriorly by superior surface of pubis

6 midplane Anteriorly by the lower border of pubis
Bilaterally by ischial spines is very important clinically because arrest of fetal descent occurs most frequently

7 outlet Irregular Consisting of two triangles It is bounded by
Posteriorly: the tip of sacrum Laterally : ischial tuberosities sacrotuberous ligaments Anteriorly:the lower border of pubis symphysis

8 Type of female pelvis Gyecoid type 52-58.9% Platypelloid type 23.2-29%
Anthropoid type % Android type 1-3.7%

9 External genital organs
mons pubis: fatty tissue labia majora labia minora which lie inside the labia majora clitoris: is located anterior to the labia minora

10 Vestibule(前庭) Lies between the labia minora Is bounded
Anteriorly by clitoris Posteriorly by perineum Urethra and vaginal orifice open to the midline of the vestibule Bartholin’s glands also empty into the vestibule

11 Internal genital organs
Vagina(阴道) an organ for coitus a drainage of menstrual flow a passage for childbirth posterior wall 10cm,anterior wall 7.5cm

12 Fornix :the area arounded the cervix
(anterior,posterior,lateral) the posterior fornix is important pouch which allows access to the peritoneal cavity from vagina

13 The vagial wall is consisted of
Mucouse membrance: is lined by squamous Beneath this is a submucosal layer of connective tissue which contains a rich of veins and lymphatics The muscular wall has three layers of smooth muscle.

14 Uterus(子宫) The body Lies between rectum and bladder Volume: 7*5*3cm
Weight: 50g Divided into two portions by isthmus The body Cornu:where the fallopians enter Fundus:the part of the body above the cornu


16 The uterus is surported by the following ligaments
Round ligament Broad ligament Cardinal ligament Utero-sacral ligament

17 Histology of uterus There are three layers of the body
The inner is endometrium which is consisted of the simple columnar epithelium Beneath the mucosa is the muscular layer,covered by peritoneal serosa

18 Fallopian tubes Length: 8-14cm The tube is divided four portions
Interstitial: isthmun Ampulla:the centre portion Infundibulum:surround the ovary and help to collect the oocyte at the time of ovulation

19 The innner layer is covered by ciliate columnar epitheliun
The cilia beat toward the uterus assisting in oocyte transport

20 ovaries Be located on either side of the uterus Volume:4*3*1cm
Weight:5-6g be almond-shaped Is divided two portion: cortex(outer portion): contains amount of follicles medulla(central portion): blood vessels, nerve fibres, lymphatics

21 Arterial system Ovarian artery: from abdominal aorta (left may be from kedney artery Uterine artery Vaginal artery Internal pudendal artery from internal iliac artery

22 Arterial system Ovarian arteries: from abdominal aorta
(left may be from kedney artery Uterine

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