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Extra Unit 5 Notes Hi All, The first few slides are blood flow you probably already know. The remaining slides are female reproductive anatomy that we.

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Presentation on theme: "Extra Unit 5 Notes Hi All, The first few slides are blood flow you probably already know. The remaining slides are female reproductive anatomy that we."— Presentation transcript:

1 Extra Unit 5 Notes Hi All, The first few slides are blood flow you probably already know. The remaining slides are female reproductive anatomy that we may not finish in lecture on Wednesday.

2 Abdominal Blood Flow: Arteries of digestive organs
Four unpaired arteries branch from the abdominal aorta: Celiac trunk Superior mesenteric artery Inferior mesenteric artery Median sacral artery (a small artery of the posterior pelvic cavity)


4 Celiac Trunk

5 Superior Mesenteric Artery Branches
Jejunal and Ileal (Intestinal) arteries (18 – 20) – supply the jejunum and ileum Ileocolic artery – supplies the ileum, cecum and appendix Right colic artery – supplies the ascending colon Middle colic artery – supplies most of the transverse colon


7 Inferior Mesenteric Artery Branches
Left colic artery – supplies descending colon Sigmoid arteries – supply the sigmoid colon Superior rectal artery – supplies rectum and part of the anal canal


9 Paired Arteries of the Abdominal Aorta
Inferior Phrenic arteries – supply the diaphragm Suprarenal arteries – supply the adrenal glands Renal arteries – supply the kidneys Gonadal arteries – (testicular or ovarian AA) supply the gonads Lumbar arteries – supply the posterior abdominal wall Common Iliac arteries – branch into external iliac (soon to be femoral) and Internal iliac arteries.

10 The Perineum The diamond-shaped region of skin between the thighs with these boundaries: Pubic symphysis Ischial tuberosities Coccyx A line between the ischial tuberosities divides the perineum into two triangles: Urogenital triangle – anterior Anal triangle – posterior

11 Perineum

12 Female Reproductive Organs
The primary sex organs of the female are the ovaries The accessory sex organs are: Uterine tubes Uterus Vagina Clitoris Mammary glands

13 Ovaries Paired almond-sized female gonads.
Held in the pelvic cavity by folds of peritoneum (pelvic ligaments): Broad ligament (Proper) Ovarian ligament Suspensory ligament (contains A and V)

14 Support of Ovaries

15 Internal Organs of the Female Reproductive System

16 Structure of the Ovary Covered by a thin epithelium and a deeper capsule called tunica albuginea. Internally, the ovary is divided into a cortex and medulla. The cortex contains ovarian follicles and the medulla contains connective tissue, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and NN. Ovarian follicles consist of an oocyte (egg cell) surrounded by follicle cells. There are several types of follicles, each at different stages of development. (primordial, primary, secondary, vesicular)

17 Structure of Ovary

18 Vesicular (Graafian) Follicle

19 Corpus Luteum Following release of the oocyte (ovulation) halfway through the monthly cycle, the remnants of the follicle (minus the oocyte) become a corpus luteum. The corpus luteum secretes progesterone and estrogen which stimulates the growth of the uterine endometrium

20 Uterine Tubes The uterine tubes (fallopian tubes) extend laterally from both sides of the uterus. 10-12 cm in length and covered by the mesosalpinx The secondary oocyte is usually fertilized here and travels for 2-3 days to the lumen of the uterus. The mucosa of the uterine tubes is a ciliated columnar epithelium. Infundibulum – lateral opening of the tube encircled by fingerlike projections called fimbriae

21 Uterine Tubes and Uterus

22 Mucosa of Uterine Tubes

23 Uterus Pear-shaped, thick-walled muscular organ within the pelvic cavity Possesses a lumen that is continuous with the uterine tubes laterally and with the vagina inferiorly. May be anteverted (forward) or retroverted (tilted backward) Functions: Site of oocyte implantation Supports the developing pre-embryo/embryo/fetus Ejects the fetus during labor


25 Regions of the Uterus There are four regions of the uterus: Fundus
Body Isthmus Cervix The uterine wall is comprised of three layers: Perimetrium – outermost serosal layer Myometrium –smooth muscle wall Endometrium – mucosa composed of a simple columnar epithelium and an underlying lamina propria. The lamina propria is filled with uterine glands which enlarge during the uterine cycle

26 Support of the Uterus Several structures support the uterus:
Muscles of the pelvic floor The round ligaments The transverse cervical ligaments (cardinal ligaments) Weakness of these ligaments can result in prolapse of the uterus, in which it protrudes through the vagina.

27 Uterine Tubes and Uterus

28 Vagina The vagina is a fibromuscular tube about 10 cm in length that connects the uterus to the outside of the body. The vaginal wall is thin and distensible with a mucosa of stratified squamous epithelium. Near the opening, folds of the mucosa form a membranous barrier called the hymen The fornix is the deepest part of the vagina around the cervix.


30 External Genitalia The external genitalia of the female are collectively called the vulva.

31 External Genitalia The mons pubis is an area of skin and subcutaneous fat anterior to the pubic symphysis. The labia majora are paired folds of skin, covered with hair, possessing sebaceous and sweat glands and are homologous with the male scrotum.

32 External Genitalia The labia minora are medial to the labia majora and hairless. The space between the labia minora is the vestibule. Within the vestibule are the urethral orifice and the vaginal orifice.

33 External Genitalia

34 External Genitalia Also within the vestibule are two greater vestibular glands, which produce a mucus similar to that produced by the (homologous) male bulbourethral glands. The glans clitoris is a small erectile body, located superior to the urethral opening and homologous to the penis of the male The prepuce is an external fold of the labia minora that forms a hoodlike covering over the clitoris.

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