Presentation on theme: "Extra Unit 5 Notes Hi All, The first few slides are blood flow you probably already know. The remaining slides are female reproductive anatomy that we."— Presentation transcript:
1 Extra Unit 5 NotesHi All,The first few slides are blood flow you probably already know. The remaining slides are female reproductive anatomy that we may not finish in lecture on Wednesday.
2 Abdominal Blood Flow: Arteries of digestive organs Four unpaired arteries branch from the abdominal aorta:Celiac trunkSuperior mesenteric arteryInferior mesenteric arteryMedian sacral artery (a small artery of the posterior pelvic cavity)
5 Superior Mesenteric Artery Branches Jejunal and Ileal (Intestinal) arteries (18 – 20) – supply the jejunum and ileumIleocolic artery – supplies the ileum, cecum and appendixRight colic artery – supplies the ascending colonMiddle colic artery – supplies most of the transverse colon
9 Paired Arteries of the Abdominal Aorta Inferior Phrenic arteries – supply the diaphragmSuprarenal arteries – supply the adrenal glandsRenal arteries – supply the kidneysGonadal arteries – (testicular or ovarian AA) supply the gonadsLumbar arteries – supply the posterior abdominal wallCommon Iliac arteries – branch into external iliac (soon to be femoral) and Internal iliac arteries.
10 The PerineumThe diamond-shaped region of skin between the thighs with these boundaries:Pubic symphysisIschial tuberositiesCoccyxA line between the ischial tuberosities divides the perineum into two triangles:Urogenital triangle – anteriorAnal triangle – posterior
15 Internal Organs of the Female Reproductive System
16 Structure of the OvaryCovered by a thin epithelium and a deeper capsule called tunica albuginea.Internally, the ovary is divided into a cortex and medulla.The cortex contains ovarian follicles and the medulla contains connective tissue, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and NN.Ovarian follicles consist of an oocyte (egg cell) surrounded by follicle cells.There are several types of follicles, each at different stages of development. (primordial, primary, secondary, vesicular)
19 Corpus LuteumFollowing release of the oocyte (ovulation) halfway through the monthly cycle, the remnants of the follicle (minus the oocyte) become a corpus luteum.The corpus luteum secretes progesterone and estrogen which stimulates the growth of the uterine endometrium
20 Uterine TubesThe uterine tubes (fallopian tubes) extend laterally from both sides of the uterus.10-12 cm in length and covered by the mesosalpinxThe secondary oocyte is usually fertilized here and travels for 2-3 days to the lumen of the uterus.The mucosa of the uterine tubes is a ciliated columnar epithelium.Infundibulum – lateral opening of the tube encircled by fingerlike projections called fimbriae
23 UterusPear-shaped, thick-walled muscular organ within the pelvic cavityPossesses a lumen that is continuous with the uterine tubes laterally and with the vagina inferiorly.May be anteverted (forward) or retroverted (tilted backward)Functions:Site of oocyte implantationSupports the developing pre-embryo/embryo/fetusEjects the fetus during labor
25 Regions of the Uterus There are four regions of the uterus: Fundus BodyIsthmusCervixThe uterine wall is comprised of three layers:Perimetrium – outermost serosal layerMyometrium –smooth muscle wallEndometrium – mucosa composed of a simple columnar epithelium and an underlying lamina propria. The lamina propria is filled with uterine glands which enlarge during the uterine cycle
26 Support of the Uterus Several structures support the uterus: Muscles of the pelvic floorThe round ligamentsThe transverse cervical ligaments (cardinal ligaments)Weakness of these ligaments can result in prolapse of the uterus, in which it protrudes through the vagina.
28 VaginaThe vagina is a fibromuscular tube about 10 cm in length that connects the uterus to the outside of the body.The vaginal wall is thin and distensible with a mucosa of stratified squamous epithelium.Near the opening, folds of the mucosa form a membranous barrier called the hymenThe fornix is the deepest part of the vagina around the cervix.
30 External GenitaliaThe external genitalia of the female are collectively called the vulva.
31 External GenitaliaThe mons pubis is an area of skin and subcutaneous fat anterior to the pubic symphysis.The labia majora are paired folds of skin, covered with hair, possessing sebaceous and sweat glands and are homologous with the male scrotum.
32 External GenitaliaThe labia minora are medial to the labia majora and hairless.The space between the labia minora is the vestibule.Within the vestibule are the urethral orifice and the vaginal orifice.
34 External GenitaliaAlso within the vestibule are two greater vestibular glands, which produce a mucus similar to that produced by the (homologous) male bulbourethral glands.The glans clitoris is a small erectile body, located superior to the urethral opening and homologous to the penis of the maleThe prepuce is an external fold of the labia minora that forms a hoodlike covering over the clitoris.