2 What questions are we considering during the institute? What is an instructional coach?What does an instructional coach do?What is the theoretical foundation for instructional coaching?How can coaching programs address barriers to change?What specific communication strategies can a coach use to build learning relationships?What is…? Someone who has proven practices they share with teachers in a partnership relationship.What does coach do?—”Doesn’t matter how many people you have on board at the start, but it does matter how good those relationships are. .Theoretical Foundation (Reader’s digest 15 most popular jokes -- Emily and Ben Driving –runs all green light, stops at red light, you never know when my brother might be driving by) Emily knew how to drive, but did not have a good theory about driving. We can know the components of coaching, but not have a good theory of coaching.Partnership Principles - goal is to fully engage the personBarriers to Change?Depressing– current situation and reason change is hard.Cheer up – what we can do. It is not easy to lead change. There are things you can do, but change is complicated.Communication Strategies? Most meaningful conversations now days take place on the Internet – Gap between people – coaches must help bridge that gapWkbk. P. 34
3 Instructional Coaching EnrollmentIdentify interventionExplain interventionModel Lessons (You watch me)Observe (I watch you)Collaboratively Exploration of Data (CED)Continue on-going collaboratingCreate an after-action reportAsk teachers what they remember about:Enroll – Large Group, small group, interviews best, informal conversationsIdentify – Big four (classroom management, content, instruction, formative assessmentExplain – one page summaries, co-construct observation formModel – teacher uses co-constructed form to observe youObserve – You use form to observe teacherCollaboration – language of ongoing reguard (specific, non-attributive praise) --data Let teachers discover the problems rather than you telling them what the issues are
4 Partnership Principles EqualityPraxisDialogueChoiceVoiceReflectionReciprocityWhat do you remember about:equality: a balance of powerpraxis: the integration of thinking and actingdialogue: Bohm: etymology of dialogue and discussionA dialogue or conversation among individuals ... must be based on mutual respect, equality, a willingness to listen and to risk one’s prejudices and opinions. Bernsteinchoice: when one wins, the partner also winsVoice: Matsushita: we need to mobilize all of the intelligence in the organizationReflection:Reciprocity: when one teaches, two learn.
5 Understanding Educational Change Change is ParadoxicalOn day 1 we talked about stages of change (Prochaska) [Wkbk. 4 – Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Actvation, Maintenence, Termination/Integration] . In that day we talked mostly about personal change. Organizational change is even harder.
6 School culture can stop change dead in its tracks! Example: elevator (Stand facing the numbers) A poet in a certain town would stand in the elevator facing people and it would make them mad. No written rules of elevator etiquette, just culture.Imagine it’s the day of a PD session. Folks out front of the auditorium, nice selection of sugar-coated, high carb. refreshmentsA teacher says, I’m so glad it’s a PD day. I just love the chance to learn and grow and develop as a professionalOn the way out, she turns to her friends, I can’t wait to try out all of these great new practices tomorrow. We’re just so lucky to be able to learn like this.--IN most schools, we’d have to say she’s exhibiting what can only be called, deviant behaviorCommon Reasons Change is difficult – Wkbk 35
7 Moving/Stuck Schools (Rosenholtz, 1991) 1991 Research from the 80’s Moving Stuck Schools pg 210 in text. Go to text and have teachers read with me.+Research from the 80’s on 72 school districts (book Teacher’s Workplace)Moving schools – high levels of achievementTeachers had shared goals (often after school see them sharing ideas)Sharing led to them being better teachersLed to School AchievementLed to increased teacher motivationThen teachers buy into shared goalsStuck school – no shared sense of direction -- each teacher goes in their own direction, same old arguments year after year – De javu all over again (Yogi Berra)Don’t collaborate, don’t share ideas, don’t change (but kids change)Teachers not committed (can tell you to day when they will retire)**If you take a teacher from a stuck school and put them in a moving school, they will become a better teacher. If you put a teacher from a moving school in a stuck school everything will try to drag that teacher down. If the teacher wins an award for being a good teacher they’ll be told, “What are you trying to do, become a principal?”**Does this resonate with you as being true?(Could be a moving department and a stuck department)The culture of a school can stand in the way of change.
8 Decisions can be made poorly Personalities can get in the way People can be irrationalDecisions can be made poorlyPersonalities can get in the wayState, district, school, classroom goals can be out of alignmentAny change can be difficult to acceptWKBK p.35Facing pressures from the board, the community, leaders can act in ways that are hard to grasp (disagree just because its not their idea or because someone they don’t like agreed)Snap decisions not based on data (based on a one observation of one teacher, whole programs, successful programs have been cut)Because many teachers have experienced ineffective PD, (one-shot sessions that sometimes lack relevance and have no follow-up-quick-fix thinking Peter Senge) teachers lose their interest in PD.In fact, the teacher who loves PD, who says great today is a PD day on the way in, and says “Gee, I can’t wait to try this on the way out, that person exhibits what can only be described as deviant behavior”Story about teacher arriving at heaven and no teachers are there. They were in an inservice in hell.
9 Quick-Fix ThinkingSometimes the most difficult leadership acts are to refrain from intervening through popular quick fixes ~Peter SengePersonal: A guy who is bad at his job goes home and drinks because it will make him feel better. Forgets about the problem for a while, but the next day does a worse job because of the drinking.School: Test scores are low so they spend time on a lot of test prep programs to increase test scores. Because students are not deeply learning the material, this material must be repeated year after year.Schools can get in the pattern of quick fix thinking and it leads to the cycle [next slide]
10 Attempt, Attack, Abandon Cycle Example: Lets send people to hear Marzno…..scores don’t automatically go up, try something else..“We tried that and the scores didn’t go up, so it obviously didn’t work”Like people who want to get in shape, and go out and but the newest weight loss gizmo, then only use it a few times, toss it aside and then buy the next gizmo only to buy another and another without every doing the heavy lifting of really working to get in shape Treadmill = Electric Clothes hangerYou have to do more than buy the equipment, you actually have to use it.We keep adding stuff and never taking anything away. Education Constipation.Adaptive Change – Instead of abandoning adapt
11 “as the number of changes multiplies, and as the time demands increase, people approach a dysfunction threshold, a point where they lose the capacity to implement changes”--Darryl Conner, Managing at the speed of changeEven the best teacher is going to reach a point where he or she says “Enough already, I can’t take on one more thing”“I can do this and this well, maybe both things, but I can’t do ten things really well”Also called Innovation Overload[Look through wkbk. Page 35 and discuss at your table whether these ideas resonate as true.]****How does it feel to experience organizational self-destructive behaviors*****
12 Leading change is like herding cats We as IF’s have to bring together people in differing stages of change with varrying ideas and get them to embrace a common purpose.How do we do that?Take a paradoxical approach to adaptive change.
14 Take a paradoxical approach to adaptive change Paradoxical approach – Seemingly contradictory or opposed to common sense and yet perhaps is. Not being the normal or usual kind.
15 Effective change is paradoxical Top-down AND bottom-upEasy AND powerfulSelf-organizing AND tightly managedGaining commitment by not demanding commitmentExplained in the following slides
16 Effective Change is Paradoxical Top-down and Bottom-up
17 Top-down & Bottom-up Michael Fullan Top-down, by itself, doesn’t work… “The direct approach of naming the goal and mobilizing to achieve it does not, and cannot work in something as complex as change agentry.”Michael FullanTop-down: school leadershipBottom-up: supportCommon phenomenon: You don’t show your boss the dark side of the apple. The teacher will be unlikely to come to the coach with a weakness if they perceive the coach is “top-down.”The more the coach acts like the principal, the less the teachers will want to work him/her.
18 We take a partnership approach Our work embodies the principles of equality, choice, voice, reflection, dialogue, praxis, and reciprocity.“We want to be just like any other teacher in the school”The “we” here refers to the KU Center for Research and LearningPartnership learning is both a philosophy and a methodology.Philosophy – When you see the world through “partnership glasses,” you come to understand human relationships in new ways. (opposite: dominator approach to relationships)“The principles you live by create the world you live in: if you change the principles you live by, you will change the world.” Blaine Lee, The Power PrinciplePartnership approach…Tread lightlyOffer ideas tentatively-Respect and care for relationship-Balance power between ourselves and those around us. Peter Block
19 But… Bottom-up alone is not sufficient Teachers may choose not to change when they need to improveStrategies may not get cued in additional classroomsThere may be a lack of coherence in what is implementedYou need a system of accountability in order to get specific things implemented.Safety is essential… confidentiality, support, no surprises
20 Coach & principal … Need to be on the same page Do the coach and principalUnderstand all of the interventions?Have a shared understanding of all teachers needs?Have a shared vision about school improvement?
21 In most cases, if the principal does not support the coach, the coach will not be effective.
22 How can the principal show support? Communicate support for the coachArrange staff developmentLead study groupsCo-facilitate staff developmentLearning about what the coach has to offerMake time to meet frequently with the coach (at least once a week)Professional learning in schools – single most important factor is that the principal participates in the learningPrincipal’s Core belief… professional learning is necessary
23 Respect their time (30 min.) Provide solutions, not more problems What must the coach do?Be super-organizedRespect their time (30 min.)Provide solutions, not more problemsCoach should see this as the most important presentation of the week!What must the coach do?Be super-organized-Work from an agendaPrincipal concernsProblem solveReview actions since last weekDiscussing interventions (teaching practices)Respect their time (30 mins.)Be very prepared; stay on trackCreate one-page summariesProvide solutions, not more problemsThe principal has enough stress as it is. Put your game face on. Don’t bother to bring up a problem, unless you have a solution.Make each meeting valuable enough that the principal will want to work with you
24 What approach must the coach take? Work from the partnership perspectiveBe aware of identity issuesUse questions to confront the brutal factsStay focused on student outcomesSeparate people from the issue
25 Discuss with your partner What can you do next week to start turning this paradoxical idea into an action?
26 Effective Change is Paradoxical Easy and Powerful -ideas, values, technologies that do the job with the least demand on psychic energy will survive. An appliance that does more work with less effort will be preferred, Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi-this also applies to knowledge transfer in schools; interventions that are powerful and easy to use are going to be adopted by teachers
27 How do we ensure they’re powerful? Using scientifically based interventions that achieved socially significant resultsTargeting standardsTargeting teachers’ most pressing needsUsing checklists, in-class demonstrations, and feedback to ensure that teachers learn research-based practicesHealthy virus – easy to implement and powerful so that it will spreadThe coherence comes after you get the virus spreadingServitude attitude – Nothing too small if I have the time.
28 How do we make it easy? Prepare materials Provide as much support as necessary & no moreSimplify & translate teacher manuals (TPOV)Observe and collaborateTPOV – Teachable point of viewUse observation formsModel in the classroom
29 Discuss with your partner What can you do next week to start turning this paradoxical idea into an action?
30 Self-organizing & tightly managed Story about Trent University in Canada – They originally did not build any sidewalks. Students just would walk where they wanted across the grass. They then built sidewalks where the paths were. If you look at other major universities there are paths everywhere.--Self organizing first, then highly organized.In a school – get teachers together talking about what they teach. Help them see ways they can teach which will help each other.
31 Ideas Spread Like a Virus ( ) We want people to catch our healthiness.Movie Pay it ForwardHow do coaches spread healthy viruses?Make sure first collaborations are very well done (easy, powerful, validating)TRUST FORMULA (Duke University): (credability+ reliability+honesty)/self-focusPartner with principal – pressure and supportCommunicate successes (newsletters,…)Identify teachers with informal powerTalk w/principal and other leaders (certain teachers have informal power)Talk with teachersObserve interactions (lounge, team mtgs., informal settings)
32 How is this video like new ideas in schools? Free Hugs
33 Build coherence after there is a critical mass of support for teachers Start with a few teachers who implement well. Then you can say to another teacher, “There is a group of teachers using this strategy and it is working well for them. Would you like to try…”Word of mouth is huge.Work Towards:Institutionalizing ChangesTeaching interventions across teamsCreating Leadership teamsIncorporating interventions into School Improvement teams
34 Not demanding commitment to get commitment Natural outgrowth of the previous three
35 Our goal: internal commitment (Chris Argyris, 2000) Anyone with power can demand commitmentAnyone with power can demand commitment- Lesley watching Dr. Oz- he convinces me why I need to do it for myself!!Example: External (because you’re being watched): Diving down the highway 9 miles over speed limit. Using cruise. I’ll follow the speed limit as long as I am told, but if I don’t have to I’m not going to do it.Internal (doing it because it’s the right thing to do): If I saw a movie on the dangers of speeding and I was convinced that I should stop speeding.If we have something valuable, people will/should want to do it. (Sometimes saying no is a good response to some change initiatives.)But, external commitmentis temporary (when leader leaves, change leaves)leads to poor practicesengenders resentmentInternal commitmentcan be permanentleads to high-quality practicesengenders positive attitudesHandling Resistance:What persuades people is not talk, but experience (let’s try this and see if it works)People must have time to thinkTreat teachers with respectFocus on a few things
36 Discuss with your partner What can you do next week to start turning these paradoxical ideas into an action?Self organizing vs. highly organized.Internal Commitment vs. External CommitmentWhat thoughts do you have about these?Could respond, “At our school we are all told what to do and we do it.” --no right way – try to find something teacher is doing well…[Find a partner you do not normally sit with and sit with them after lunch?]
37 Effective change is paradoxical Top-down AND bottom-upEasy AND powerfulSelf-organizing AND tightly managedGaining commitment by not demanding commitment
38 Creating Learning Conversations How coaches utilize partnership communication
39 The MouthpieceWhat do you think about Lori’s actions in the school? Is there anything she should be doing differently?Is it OK for Lori to gossip behind Mike’s back? What can she do to avoid gossiping?What should she do now? If she should work with Mike, how should she use the partnership approach with him?Workbook page 43 and 44, questions are on page 45.
40 Responsive turns help you change the dynamics taking place in an encounter. They represent different levels of challenge and varying potential for creating learning.Kolb & Williams (2000) The Shadow Negotiation
41 Responsive Turns Kolb & Williams (2000) The Shadow Negotiation Interrupt an encounter to change it’s momentumName an encounter to make its nature and consequences more obviousCorrect an encounter to provide an explanation for what is taking place and to rectify understandings and assumptionsDivert an encounter to the interaction in a different direction
42 Responsive Turns Interrupt Cutting off negative conversation before it begins“Oh crap, I’m late; I’ve gotta go.”NameDescribing what’s going on so everyone can see it“I thought we agreed we weren’t going to gossip”CorrectClarifying that a statement is not true“Mr. Smith was actually opposed to the plan.”DivertMoving the conversation in a different direction“Speaking of Tom, when does basketball season start this year?”
43 Your chance to play “stop the gossip” Team up with a partnerOne of you gets to be the gossipOne of you gets to be the good guy or girlThe gossip starts with an innocent conversation and then slides in some very interesting gossipThe good person practices using responsive turns to move out of the gossip
44 Your next task Please watch this film clip of a masterful communicator What does she do to make sure that she communicates her message?Start video at 5:00 and watch until 6:50 onlyTula wants to work in a travel agency, but there’s one problem, her father is a traditional man who has to be the decision maker, and who thinks Tula should work in the restaurant. So Tula’s mother wants to communicate with himShow Big Fat Greek WeddingShe is a master communicator--how does she do itPlease break down the components.What is the interference and how does she get around it?
45 How does communication proceed? SpeakerMessageListenerInterferencePerceived MessageFeedback
47 Listening Concepts Misconceptions Attentiveness Self-awareness Honesty and authenticityEmpathy and respect
48 Listening Strategies 1. Developing inner silence 2. Listening for what contradicts our assumptions3. Clarifying4. Communicating our understanding5. Practicing every day6. Practicing with terrible listeners7. Developing a routine
49 Listening to Learn Stone, Patton, Heen (1999) Difficult conversations The problem is this. You are taught what to say and how to sit, but the heart of good listening is is authenticity. People “read” not only your words and posture, but what’s going on inside you. If your “stance” isn’t genuine, the words won’t matter… If your intentions are false, no amount of careful wording or good posture will help. If your intentions are good, even clumsy language won’t hinder you.
50 Listening is only powerful and effective if it is authentic Listening is only powerful and effective if it is authentic. Authenticity means that you are listening because you are curious and because you care, not just because you are supposed to. The issue, then, is this: Are you curious? Do you care?Stone, Patton, Heen (1999) Difficult conversations
51 Listening is at the heart of the partnership relationship
52 Remember Being understood is a deep human need Understanding is not the same as agreeingYour attitude is much more important than your technique
53 How does communication proceed? SpeakerMessageListenerInterferencePerceived MessageFeedbackRemember the movie Jaws. Every time you heard the music you knew the shark was coming. Wouldn’t it have been helpful to the people in the movie if they could have heard the music?
55 We walk through communication minefields Three types of conversations*What happenedFeelingsIdentity*Stone, Patton, & Heen (1999) Difficult ConversationsThese communication strategies are to help you “hear the music” in conversations. (wkbk 48)Many times when conversations break down there is a subtle subtext to the conversation that has nothing to do with what’s on the surface. (If you find yourself in these conversations GET OUT “Maybe your right” or use a responsive turn” – be mindful of other person)What happened? I said I was going to pick you up at 6 – No you said 7 (Not getting anywhere because they’re wrong and you’re right and they feel the same way) Endless cycle with everyone trying to prove they are right. -- No point in worrying about it, just let it go.Feelings conversation – You made me feel this way. (Use nonjudgmental statements acknowledge feelings without admitting they are right.. My intent was not to make you feel that way…) Related to Barkley Communication stuff.Identity Conversation – about who I am and how I see myself -- Big one for a coach -- many times teachers resist change because of an identity issue – they need help because they are not skilled (next slide)
56 What are the assumptions behind “What Happened” I have all of the information I need to knowI’m rightThey’re wrongIt’s all their faultMy job is to persuade them that I’m right since they’re wrong
57 Feelings My feelings are their fault, Their opinion is morally wrong since it makes me feel this waySo, my opinion has momentum now
58 IdentityI’m competent or incompetent, skilled or unskilled, good or bad, lovable or unlovable (there’s no in-between)I’m going to protect my all-or nothing self-imageTeacher’s need to believe (above) about themselves.If in this conversation you need to assure the listener that this is not an identity conversation.Be sure you protect who teacher’s are as a capable person.If teachers pick up the message that you believe they are not capable, not good at their job, you will get resistance.Work in Partnership.
59 Your learning taskWatch this film clip Look for examples of (a) what happened conversations (b) feelings conversations (c) identity conversationsBefore the clip, check with each other and see if you know all three types of conversations.Father of the Bride (Laker game forward)Where did you see the three conversations?[Discuss where was each type]Strategies we’ve talked about so far:Positive, direct, non-attributive feedbackResponsive turnsAuthentic ListeningLook for types of conversations “Listening to the music”
60 Sometimes… The interference is the stories we tell ourselves Example: When we first got married I wanted to be helpful, so I cooked a meal. My wife was very upset that night. When we had a chance to talk about it I found out she was upset because she thought I was cooking because I thought she did not know how (partly my fault because of kidding about fried bologna).You can turn another person into a villian.
61 Clever Stories Patterson, Grenny, McMillan, & Switzer (2001) Crucial conversations Villain storiesVictim storiesHelpless storiesWe tell“clever stories” ourselves to justify our (a) understanding of what happened, (b) feelings, (c) identity issuesIf I turn my boss into the villian I filter everything he/she does through that. -- My principal is not an instructional leader so I cannot do my job in this school.Victim and Helpless – That teacher has all the GT kids so she’s going to have better gains in test scores.These stories can keep us from learning important information or learning important stuff about ourselvesYour Learning experience p.51 [Think back to a conflict you’ve had and think trough the conflict. Find your partner and share the conflict with them. Tell them the story and why it’s the other person’s fault. Partner is to listen and then try to tell other reason’s the person may be acting that way. You story should include: What happened-how you felt-why the other person was wrong. Switch partners and do it again]
62 what if the other person really is a villain? But…what if the other person really is a villain?The only way to know for sure is to truly try out many other possible stories. (I have noticed many coaches are good at this when it comes to kids – we see kids haven’t had a chance to learn because of home life, low expectations, etcAre we as good at considering other stories when it comes to teachers? Do they teach this way because they have tried so many things that didn’t work, were one burnt by an administrator, etc.) -- Most teachers started to teach because they wanted to make a difference. -- It is harder the closer we are to the situation.See if you can list at your table the different Com. Strategies we’ve talked about so far:Positive, direct, non-attributive feedbackResponsive turnsAuthentic ListeningLook for types of conversations “Listening to the music”Look for StoriesEven though we may have all these strategies….
63 Yet, you have to admit…you feel like doing this to at least one person every day!… we need to remind ourselves of these strategies and keep practicing.
65 Effective Body Language ExpressionTouchGestureLocation (Personal Space)Wkbk page 51Ekman Micro-expressions Video
66 Body Language Communicates Love or hateControl or submissionInterest or boredomTrust or suspicion
67 The subtle language of interpersonal communication Gottman (2001) The Relationship Cure Building an emotional connection through emotional bids…“A bid can be a question, a gesture, a look, a touch--any single expression that says ‘I want to feel connected to you.’A response to a bid is just that--a positive or negative answer to somebody’s request for emotional connection”Wkbk, page 52
68 Bids Easy to see or incredibly subtle Verbal or nonverbal Highly physical or totally intellectualHigh or low energyFunny or dead seriousCan be questions, statements, or comments about thoughts, feelings, observations, opinions, invitations
69 Building an emotional connection Turn towardsTurn away fromTurn againstStory about man who is reading and wife watching wreck outside the window.
70 Eight Communication Strategies Foster ongoing regardEmploy partnership feedbackUse responsive turnsWatch out for minefields (Feelings, What Happened, Identity)Consider other storiesPractice really listeningAttend to body languageBuild an emotional connection
71 Time to reflectIdentify one idea you want to act on: What do you feel? What do you think? What are you going to do?
72 The Reluctant LeaderIs there any thing David should have done differently in the past?What should David do now?What committees should David be on?What should David do about his principal’s lack of knowledge?Participants complete the activity on pp individually. Find two people with different numbers so that each group has a 1,2, and 3. What advice would you give David?WB pp
73 Looking at Leadership WB p. 61 Take a few minutes to jot down some notes about a person you consider to be a great leader. This might be someone famous, someone you work with, a family member, anyone you consider to be a great leader. Share your ideas with your partner and identify a common theme in your discussion.Chart the characteristics of great leaders.WB p. 61
74 Level 5 Leaders…embody a paradoxical mix of personal humility and professional will. … display a compelling modesty, are self- effacing, understated … display a workman like diligence, are more plow horse than show horse … attribute successes to factors other than themselves … look in the mirror and blame themselves when things go poorlyMix of professional will and personal modesty. Ex: driving to work thinking “how am I going to get that person on board?” Personal respect for the person—not going to let it rest, but at the same time not “in your face” about it either.Think about how it would feel to work with someone who was only one of these: aggressive, pushy, ambitious. Share with your neighbor.Push people awayVicious cycle: you push harder, teachers resist more. You think, “what’s wrong with them for not wanting to try this great thing?” and they start to feel like you’re putting them down.Too pushy doesn’t work because teachers won’t see you in a good light. JK—personal experience when he first started, he was so excited about it that he pushed teachers too hard and they pulled back; he learned to back off and say “if they want to learn this and they’re ready, then they will accept.” Anyone who can relate to this?On the flip side, how would it feel to work with someone who is too humble and respectful with NO PUSH? Share with your neighbor.People will say that what you have to offer is great but they won’t make time for you.You will be busy making copies, analyzing test data, organizing the book room, providing materials rather than asking “how can I get teachers on board?” “what committees do I need to be on?” “how can I make change happen?” (They will like having you around.)Need the right combination of personal humility and the will to make things happen. Keep working on ways to get teachers on board and be mindful of the partnership principles. (Review partnership principles, if time allows.)Turn & Talk: How does this information resonate with you?
75 Partnership Leadership Now that we have a good idea about what makes a good leader (and perhaps a few ideas about what does not), let’s examine a few partnership leadership tactics that are specific to the work of the instructional facilitator.Walk on solid groundManage change effectivelyUnderstand School CultureBuilding Relational TrustDetermining How Hard to PushTake Care of YourselfPartnership LeadershipTactics
76 What questions are we considering during the institute? What is an instructional coach?What does an instructional coach do?What is the theoretical foundation for instructional coaching?How can coaching programs address barriers to change?What specific communication strategies can a coach use to build learning relationships?Next time: More on Leading ChangeCould read Chapter 9 in Instructional Coaching Book