Problem-Solving or “ Problems Are Our Friends” Mickey Hughes Christine Combs
Problems Are Our Friends Why? Road to sustaining meaningful change Effective organizations embrace problems It is the difference between successful schools and non- successful schools Fullan, 1993
Diversity and Conflict Are Our Friends Why? When respected, associated with breakthroughs Part of being a learning organization Essential to forming relationships Encourages conversations, builds capacity Fullan, 1999
SYSTEMS PRACTICES Information Data Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Decision Making Supporting Student Behavior Positive Behavior Support OUTCOMES Social Competence, Academic Achievement, and Safety
Problem Solving A problem that needs addressed can burn up a lot of team time with little progress Team needs an agreed upon process for problem solving Many problem solving models available Basic steps are the same
“…it is dangerous and often counterproductive to put adults in a room without frameworks and tools for skilled interaction.” The Adaptive School Garmston & Wellman Question to consider… Does your team use a process?
Benefits of problem solving in teams Team members can have innovative ideas based on their individual and collective skills and experience The total skills, experience and knowledge of the individuals in a team is greater than those of one individual One person’s thoughts and ideas expressed aloud can spark another person’s thoughts, resulting in a better spread of ideas
Solving a problem in a team gives a solution, or solutions which are taken on board by the team, rather than creating a feeling of ideas imposed by one individual Individuals have different ways of going about solving problems, leading to a good cross section of possible solutions
Skills for Solving Problems Team members need to be: Able to listen to others Able to express a point of view Able to give and receive feedback Able to understand and use the problem solving process
Skills for Solving Problems Team members need to be: Able to think creatively Able to support and encourage other team members Able to respect other points of view Able to reach a consensus
7 Norms of Collaborative Work Pausing Paraphrasing Probing Putting forward ideas Paying attention to self and others Presuming positive presuppositions Pursuing a balance between advocacy and inquiry Lipton & Wellman
7 Norms of Collaborative Work 1.Pausing (wait time) –after a question is asked –after someone speaks –after being asked a question - personal reflection time - a person waits before answering –collective pause
7 Norms of Collaborative Work 2.Paraphrasing (a restatement of a text, passage, or work giving the meaning in another form) –group becomes clearer and more cohesive about their work –reflects content back to the speaker for further consideration –connects the response to the flow of discourse emerging within the group
7 Norms of Collaborative Work 3.Probing for Specificity –seek to clarify something not yet understood –people make different assumptions about meaning of words and concepts
7 Norms of Collaborative Work 4.Putting Ideas on the Table –ideas are the heart of group work –ideas are the heart of meaningful discussion –to be effective they must be released to the group –reconsidering ideas
7 Norms of Collaborative Work 5.Paying Attention to Self and Others –Skilled group members are aware of what they are saying how they are saying it how others are receiving and responding to their ideas
7 Norms of Collaborative Work 6.Presuming Positive Presuppositions (Intentions) –encourages honest conversations about important matters –reduces the possibility of the listener perceiving threats or challenges in a paraphrase or question
7 Norms of Collaborative Work 7.Pursue a Balance Between Advocacy and Inquiry –spend equal amounts of time and energy advocating for one’s own ideas and inquiring into the ideas of others –advocacy: Make your thinking and reasoning visible –inquiry: Ask others to make their thinking visible
The Problem 50% of staff members are reinforcing students for meeting the school-wide expectations using verbal phrase
Step 1 Define the problem ******* What does data tell us?
Step 2 Define the desired outcome ******* What do you want instead?
Step 3 Brainstorm ******* No judgment or evaluation at this point
Step 4 Prioritize/evaluate ******* Are solutions in alignment with PBS principles ?
Step 5 Decide on best solution ******* Will this lead to the goal or outcome?
Step 6 Make implementation plan ******* Does it include actions/tasks, who is responsible, & timelines?
Step 7 Develop evaluation plan ******* How will you know it is working? How will results be shared?