Presentation on theme: "Deviance, Crime and Social Control"— Presentation transcript:
1 Deviance, Crime and Social Control Chapter 7Deviance, Crime and Social Control
2 Social ControlAttempts by society to regulate people’s thought and behavior.Conformity – going along with peersObedience – compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure
3 Informal and Formal Social Control Informal social control: Used casually to enforce normsSmiles, laughter, raised eyebrows, ridiculeFormal social control: Carried out by authorized agentsInformal social control can undermine formal social control, encouraging people to violate social norms
4 SanctionsPenalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm
6 Social Foundation of Deviance Deviance varies according to cultural norms.People become deviant as others define them that way.Both norms and the way people define them involve social power.
7 Durkheim’s 4 Functions Deviance affirms cultural values and norms. Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries.Responding to deviance brings people together.Deviance encourages social change.
8 Crime violation of society’s formally enacted criminal law criminal justice system – a formal response by police, courts, and prison officials to alleged violations of the law
9 5 criticisms of the criminal justice system Tendency of police to arrest suspects from minority groups at substantially higher rates than those from the majority group in situations where discretion is possible.The overrepresentation of certain dominant social, ethnic, and racial groups on juries.The difficulty the poor encounter in affording bail.The poor quality of free legal defense.The disparity in sentencing for members of dominant and minority groups.
10 Merton’s Anomie Theory The strain between our culture’s emphasis on wealth and the limited opportunity to get rich gives rise to crime and other forms of deviance.
12 Labeling TheoryDeviance and conformity result, not so much from what people do, as from how others respond to those actions.Primary deviance – passing episodes of norm violationSecondary deviance – repeated violation of norm. Takes on a deviant identity.Stigma – a powerfully negative social label that changes a person’s self-concept and social identity, operating as a master status.
13 Differential Association Deviance is learned in groupsExposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts leads to a violation of the rules.
14 Routine Activities Theory In order to have crime you must have motivated offenders and suitable targets.
15 Social disorganization theory Increases in crime and deviance can be attributed to the absence or breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions.
16 Control TheorySocial control depends on imagining the consequences of one’s behavior
17 FBI Index of Crime8 types of crimes that are tabulated each year by the FBIMurder, rape, assault, robbery, theft, grand motor theft, arson, and burglary.
18 Table 4-4: National Crime Rate and Percentage Change
20 Types of crimeOrganized crime – a business supplying illegal goods or services.Professional crime – pursues crime as a day –to-day occupationCorporate crime – the illegal actions of a corporation or those acting on its behalfWhite collar crime – crimes committed by persons of high social position in the course of their occupations.Hate crimes – a criminal act against a person or a person’s property motivated by bias.
21 Types of CrimesTransnational crime – crime that occurs across multiple national bordersCrimes against the person – direct violence or the threat of violence against others.Crimes against property – involve theft of property belonging to others.Victimless crimes – violations of law in which there are no readily apparent victims.
22 4 reasons to punishDeterrence – attempt to discourage criminality through punishment.Societal protection – rendering an offender incapable of further offenses.
23 4 reasons to punishRehabilitation – reforming the offender to prevent subsequent offenses.Retribution – an act of moral vengeance by which society subjects an offender to suffering comparable to that caused by the offense.
24 Figure 25-3: Executions by State since 1976 Source: Death Penalty Information Center 2011.24