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**Introduction to Earth Science**

Scientific Method and the Metric System Scientific Method & the Metric System

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The Nature of Science The goal of science is to understand the world around us Special methods help to determine truths about nature

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**Branches of Earth Science**

The three main branches of science are: Life Science Earth Science Physical Science

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**Earth Science Earth science deals with the study of the Earth,**

its history, changes, and its place in the Universe There are four branches of earth science

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**Branches of Earth Science**

Geology- Earth’s origin, history, and structure Meteorology- Earth’s atmosphere & weather Oceanography- Earth’s oceans, including their physical features, life forms, and natural resources Astronomy- Planets, stars, and other objects in space

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The Scientific Method An orderly, systematic approach to problem solving The way scientists, and non-scientists, look for answers There are seven basic steps to the scientific method

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**Step 1: Stating the problem**

Decide what you want to know State the problem in the form of a question Steps of the Scientific Method

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**Step 2: Gathering information on the problem**

Research what’s already known Collect information and facts Steps of the Scientific Method

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**Step 3: Forming a hypothesis Steps of the Scientific Method**

- A hypothesis is a proposed solution to a scientific problem There are two main parts to a hypothesis An explanation- why it will happen A prediction- what will happen Steps of the Scientific Method

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**Steps of the Scientific Method**

Step 4: Experimenting Perform one or more experiments to test the hypothesis When performing experiments: Divide subjects into test groups In each experiment you should have a control group, that doesn’t get any of the variable, and several test groups Keep everything, except the amount of the variable, the same between groups Steps of the Scientific Method

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**Step 5: Recording and analyzing data Steps of the Scientific Method**

Observe and write down important information (data) Organize data using graphs, tables, and charts Look for patterns or trends Steps of the Scientific Method

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**Step 6: Stating the conclusion Steps of the Scientific Method**

Look at data and form conclusions Did the conclusions support your hypothesis? (why or why not?) Re-evaluate the hypothesis and formulate new questions Steps of the Scientific Method

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**Step 7: Repeating the work Steps of the Scientific Method**

In order for a hypothesis to be excepted it has to be able to withstand repeated testing After many experiments, where a hypothesis has continually been proven to be correct, it may be accepted by the scientific community and then considered to be a theory A theory is the most logical explanation for events that occur in nature Steps of the Scientific Method

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The Metric System A universal measurement system (also called the International System) Being based on multiples of ten makes it easy to use Uses prefixes to identify larger or smaller units of measure Prefix Symbol Multiple kilo K 1000 centi c .01 milli m .001

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**Metric Conversions - Length**

Km m dm cm mm x x x x 10 ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷10

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**Metric Conversions - Volume**

Kl l dl cl ml x x x x 10 ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷10

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**Metric Conversions - Mass**

Kg g dg cg mg x x x x 10 ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷10

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**Length Metric measurements A measure of linear distance**

Basic unit of length is the meter (m) Use a meter stick or metric ruler to make measurements Metric measurements The entire meter stick represents one meter Each number represents a centimeter (there are 100 centimeters in a meter) Each little line is a millimeter (there are 1000 millimeters in a meter)

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**Area Metric measurements**

The amount of surface included within a set of boundaries Determined by measuring the length and width of an object, then multiplying Metric measurements Length = 14 cm Width = 7 cm Area = 14 cm x 7 cm = 98 cm2 (Area is always expressed in square units)

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**Volume Metric measurements Volume is the space that an object occupies**

Represents the length, width, and height of an object For solids, measurements are based on units of length (ex. cm3) and can be calculated using specific formulas Metric measurements

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**Calculating the volume of a rectangle**

Volume of a rectangle = length x width x height (l x w x h) Metric measurements Length = 10 cm Width = 3 cm Height = 4 cm Volume = l x w x h = 10 cm x 3 cm x 4 cm = 120 cm3 4 cm 3 cm 10 cm

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**Calculating the volume of a cylinder**

Volume of a cylinder = x radius 2 x height ( x r2 x h) = 3.14 Radius = ½ diameter = ½ 10 cm = 5 cm Height = 20 cm Volume = x r2 x h = 3.14 x (5 cm)2 x 20 cm = 3.14 x 25 cm2 x 20 cm = 1570 cm3 Metric measurements Diameter = 10 cm 20 cm

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**Volume of a liquid Metric measurements A graduated cylinder is used to**

accurately measure the volume of liquids in milliliters Determine the volume in a graduated cylinder by reading the bottom of the meniscus at eye level Once the volume of a liquid is known, it can be converted to a “solid volume” by using the formula 1 ml = 1 cm3 Metric measurements

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**Mass Metric measurements Mass is a measure of the amount of matter**

Mass is measured in grams using a balance Metric measurements The mass of an object remains the same, no matter where in the universe it is measured

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**Weight Metric measurements**

Weight is a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object by a massive body Metric measurements Weight is measured in Newtons (N) using a spring scale Weight varies from place to place depending on the strength of the gravitational force

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**Gravity Metric measurements**

Gravity is the force of attraction between objects The strength of the gravitational force between objects depends on: - the distance between the objects ( the gravitational force between objects decreases with distance) -Mass ( the greater the mass of an object, the greater it’s gravitational force) Metric measurements

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**Density Metric measurements**

Density is the mass of a specific volume of an object Density is calculated by dividing the mass of an object by its volume Units for density are usually expressed in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3 ) Metric measurements Since the density of water is 1 g/cm3 anything with a density less than 1 g/cm3 will float in water and anything greater will sink

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