 # Science in Our World Chapter 1 7th Science-GIBB.

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Science in Our World Chapter 1 7th Science-GIBB

Scientific Method Ask a question Form a hypothesis
Definition - the ways in which scientists answer questions and solve problems 6 Steps Ask a question Form a hypothesis 3.Test the hypothesis 4. Analyze the results 5. Draw conclusions 6.Communicate results 7th Science-GIBB TEKS

6 Steps to Scientific Method
6. 1. 5. 2. 3. 4.

Scientific Method Ask question Form hypothesis Focus or purpose
Example: How does sunlight effect plant growth? Form hypothesis Possible answer or explanation to question Use what you know (research) Predictions If-then statements Must be testable Testable or Not Testable examples Example: If the plant receives little or no sunlight then the plant growth will be limited. 7th Science-GIBB TEKS

Scientific Method Test hypothesis
Create an experiment that will clearly show if a certain factor causes a given outcome Factor- anything in an experiment that can influence the outcome Example: The only factor we are testing is the amount of sunlight. We wouldn’t want to water the plants differently or put them in different pots. Have a controlled experiment Controlled Experiment- uses a control group and one or more experimental group(s), all factors are the same except one Example: 3 plants (same type), Plant A receives no sunlight, Plant B receives 2 hours of sunlight a day and Plant C receives the while day’s sunlight Variable- the one change that is being tested in the controlled experiment Example: amount of sunlight Collect data during the experiment 7th Science-GIBB TEKS

Scientific Method Analyze results Draw conclusions Communicate results
Done once experiment is over and all data is collected Construct reasonable explanations based on the evidence you collected in your experiment Tables, graphs, and charts Example: see chart Draw conclusions Do the results support the hypothesis? It is ok to be wrong  Communicate results Speeches, reports, and repeated experiments 7th Science-GIBB TEKS

Scientific Models Definition – representation of an object or system
Example: Map of Friendswood 3 Kinds of Models: Physical – look like the item they are modeling Mathematical – made up of mathematical equations and data Conceptual – system of ideas, groupings, or classification Scale models – ratios between model’s dimensions and the object it models remains constant Example: maps Theory – explanation for hypothesis and observations that have been supported by testing, it explains and predicts Law – summary of many experimental results and observations, tells you how things work 7th Science-GIBB TEKS 7.4

Equipment and Measurement
Tools for Measuring (examples) Stopwatch (time) Meter stick (length) Balances (mass) Thermometers (temperature) Spring Scales (force) Graduated cylinder (volume) Tools for Analyzing (examples) Calculators Graphs Figures Computers 7th Science-GIBB TEKS 7.4

Equipment and Measurement
Why do we need these tools? Measure your desk with hand vs. ruler International System of Units (SI) Almost all countries use this system Scientists can share information Based on the number 10 Makes conversions easier 7th Science-GIBB TEKS 7.4

Equipment and Measurement
Length SI unit – meter KHDMDCM model Area How much surface an object has 2 measurements: length x width Expressed as square units, m2, km2, cm2 What is the area of your textbook? Volume Amount of space something occupies or amount of space something takes up 3 measurements: Length x width x height Volume of boxes Expressed in cubic units, cm3, L3 Measured by graduated cylinders Volume of irregular shaped objects Amount of water it displaces Rock in a graduated cylinder Theory – explanation for hypothesis and observations that have been supported by testing, it explains and predicts Law – summary of many experimental results and observations, tells you how things work 7th Science-GIBB TEKS 7.4

Equipment and Measurement
Mass Amount of matter Typically measured in kilograms (large items) or grams (small items) Which has more mass, a kilogram of feathers or a kilogram of bricks? Density Amount of matter in a given volume 2 measurements: mass / volume Expressed as g/mL or g/cm3 Temperature Measure of how hot or cold something is Expressed as degrees Fahrenheit, degrees Celsius, or Kelvin (SI) Water boils at 212 F and 100 C Water freezes at 32 F and 0 C Body temperature is 98.6 F 7th Science-GIBB TEKS 7.4