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Science Fundamentals.

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Presentation on theme: "Science Fundamentals."— Presentation transcript:

1 Science Fundamentals

2 Biotechnology is science in action
Most all areas of science are used

3 Science Knowledge about the world we live in
Involves observations, measurements, and experiments to set up general truths or laws Example – Gravity Attraction between earth and objects on its surface Explains the nature and behavior of things in our world

4 Four Areas or Branches Life science Physical science Mathematics
Social science

5 Life Science Study of living things
Structures and processes of organisms that allow them to live and reproduce Medicine and agriculture are two areas with major interests in life sciences

6 Life Science Most commonly known as Biology
Further divided based on the kinds of organisms being studied

7 Life Science Botony – study of plants – kingdom plantae
Zoology – study of animals - animalia Bacteriology – study of bacteria – monera Mycology – study of fungi – fungi Virology – study of viruses

8 Viruses Tiny particle that lives in the cells of other living organisms Hard for scientists to classify They do not meet the normal conditions to be “living” organisms

9 Physical Science Study of non living things around us
Living things depend on these non living materials for life supporting essentials such as water and minerals Rocks, mechanics, and climate are three examples

10 Physical Science Chemistry – study of the composition of substances. Includes how the substances relate to each other Physics – study of energy and matter. Physical nature of objects, heat, light, sound, minerals and electricity

11 Physical Science Earth Science – study of the environment and composition of the planet earth Meteorology, geology, geography, and oceanography

12 Mathematics Science of numbers
Includes both simple and advanced operations Statistics is often used in biotechnology, helps summarize and interpret data

13 Social Science Study of interactions of people as individuals and groups. Includes sociology, ethics, anthropology and other areas Social science helps interpret how people will respond to new developments Has a large role in acceptance and benefits gained from biotech

14 Many Sciences together
Biotech uses all four of the branches of science

15 Matter and Energy Chemists and physicists study matter and energy in detail Basic understanding of matter and energy is needed to successfully do biotech work

16 Matter and Molecules Everything is composed of matter
Matter is anything that has mass Three common states of matter: solid, liquid, gas All three states are used in biotech

17 Matter All matter is made of chemical elements
Element – any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler material by ordinary means Elements are fundamental units of a chemical substance

18 Elements In their pure form, elements are made up entirely of atoms with the same number of protons. Common elements in our world include oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and iron

19 Atom Smallest unit in which an element can exist
Some atoms can exist alone, others are in pairs Copper can exist alone, oxygen exists as paired atoms O2 Most elements are natural, others artificial

20 Elements 115 Elements have been identified Not all have been named
94 are natural Additional artificial elements may be added in the future Periodic table is used to list and see relationships of elements

21 Atoms Composed of protons, neutrons and electrons
The number of protons in the atom is its atomic number Atomic numbers establish the positions of elements on the periodic table Each element is assigned a symbol of one to three letters

22 Matter Is made of molecules
Molecule – smallest group of atoms that acts together to form a stable, independent substance Simplest molecules are composed of only two or three atoms Water is an example – 2 atoms of H and one atom of O = H2O

23 Energy and Work Energy is the capacity or ability to do work
Forms of energy include chemical, heat, sound, light and electricity When force acts on a body, work is performed and energy is expended

24 Energy Potential energy – capacity for doing work that a body has because of its position Heavy object lifted high has potential energy because of its position Kinetic energy – energy a body has because it is in motion

25 Chemical Energy Present in chemical bonds that have formed molecules
Produced in living organisms when molecules are broken into smaller molecules or atoms Chemical bonds hold energy that is released when the molecules are broken down

26 Scientific Classification
Careful study and observation of organisms Taxonomy – classification of living things Seven divisions in scientific classification Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family genus, species

27 Kingdom Broadest classification Five kingdoms
Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, Protista, and Monera Scientists are now exploring the possibility of a sixth kingdom consisting of what is known to them as brown plants

28 Names of Organisms Common names Scientific names
Binomial nomenclature – two names Most in Latin Genus is capitalized, species is not, both are underlined Zea maize - corn

29 Life Processes Living condition – the ability of the protoplasm in its cells to carry out complex chemical processes. When the processes stop the organism is no longer living Life Process – am essential function for an organism to be in the living condition

30 Life Processes Growth and repair Circulation Respiration Secretion
Sensation Movement Reproduction

31 Reproduction Not essential for an organism to live
Essential for continuation of the species of the organism

32 Biotechnology uses and affects life processes such as giving a growth hormone to cows to increase milk production. Can be used to restore functions of organs by stimulating growth of new cells and tissues

33 Growth and Repair Occur throughout life Require food nutrients
Occur most rapidly in young organisms Rate declines as age increases

34 Growth Process by which cellular components and structures increase in size Growth of individual cells and growth of populations of cells are two separate events Growth of a cell results in increased size and weight Results from cell division

35 Growth Cell growth and division lead to population growth, an increase in the number of cells Growth is within the appropriate range for the species.

36 Repair The replacement of cells Removes and replaces damaged cells
Regeneration – re-growing of a damaged or missing tissue Lizzards can grow a new tail, starfish can grow new arms Regeneration does not happen in humans

37 Obtaining food and nutrients
Food enables organisms to grow as repair damaged cells Substances in foods that are used for life processes are nutrients Processes in involved in using food materials: ingestion, digestion, absorption and elimination

38 Animals need carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, vitamins and other nutrients
Their diets or rations must include the necessary nutrients in the proper proportions

39 Photosynthesis Process by which plants make food
Plant growth can be promoted by assuring that adequate nutrients are available Soil tests can assess nutrient level and recommend needed fertilizer additions

40 Circulation Movement of substances within the organism Blood - animals
Water and nutrients – plants In plants circulation takes place through the xylem and phloem Xylem carries food and nutrients up Phloem carries manufactured food down

41 Respiration Oxidation process in living cells
Releases the chemical energy in food Makes energy available for use by the organism Produces wastes that must be removed from the body Carbon Dioxide

42 Respiration Respiratory system obtains oxygen and makes it available to the blood Major organs – lungs, blood vessels Blood system collects carbon dioxide from the organs and delivers it to the lungs for removal from the body Stomata – tiny pores in leaves allow exchange of Carbon dioxide and oxygen

43 Secretion Glands of organisms produce and release substances
Promote life processes All internal and external body fluids except urine are secretions

44 Gland Specialized organ or tissue that produces secretions
Pituitary gland, salivary gland, liver, kidneys Male and female reproductive tracts also have glands that produce hormones

45 Sensation Awareness of environment
Vision, taste, smell, hearing, touch Plants respond to light stimuli

46 Movement Internal and external
Plants move as they respond to their environment Animals move to get food, escape danger, seek a mate Some animals move very little – oysters tend to remain in the same place until food comes along

47 Elimination Process by which organism removes wastes and harmful substances from its body Wastes include solids as well as fluids and gases In plants most elimination is through the stomata. They release gases and water into the air

48 Structures of Living Organisms
Cells – building blocks of living organisms Cell is a unit of life that has a definite structure All cells have a membrane that contains protoplasm, a nucleus, and cytoplasm Cells vary among organisms but tend to have the same parts

49 Plant cells have walls that give a rigid protective shell and allow plants to have shape and form
Animal cells do not have walls Cells vary in size Cells may be specialized and form tissues, organs and organ systems

50 Cell specialization Cells must be different to perform different functions Specialized cells form tissues that are eyes, skin, muscles, glands and other body structures

51 Tissues A group of cells that are alike in structure and activity
Perform a specific function Specialized cells include skin, bones, muscles, nerves In plants specialized plant tissues include rinds, skins, flower petals, roots, leaves

52 Organs Collection of tissues that work together to perform a function
May contain several different tissues

53 Organ Systems Collection of organs that work together to perform a specific function for an organism Found in higher organisms Major systems of animals and plants Circulatory system, reproductive system

54 DNA, Proteins, Enzymes and Lipids
Each performs or promotes functions within organisms Important areas in manipulating cells and organisms Major focus of genetic engineering

55 DNA Two types of nucleic acid RNA and DNA
DNA found in the chromosomes in the cell nucleus RNA – found throughout a cell but mostly in the nucleus

56 RNA Long chains of nucleotide units
Role in formation of proteins in cells Messenger RNA – leaves the cell and carries the message about making a protein mRNA has genetic code info that determines the position of amino acids Has three nucleotides known as a codon

57 DNA Molecule in the chromosome that furnishes the genes with information for development Genes carry genetic info – hereditary traits A long polymer of repeating units Composed of two strands

58 Proteins Consists of amino acids
Important in nutrition and growth of an organism Sequence of amino acids gives proteins different properties More that 20 proteins have been identified Some are essential, some are not

59 Essential Amino Acids (AA’s)
Vary with the animal’s digestive system Ruminants require fewer essential AA’s than monogastrics 10 AA’s are common for most animals

60 Protein Made up of four chemical elements H, C, N, O
Arrangement of the elements determines type of AA Some proteins also contain S, Fe, and P

61 Protein Animals must have protein to grow, repair cells, and carry out life processes Young needed higher percentage of protein Proteins are important in research Antibodies, hormones, hemoglobin, albumin

62 Protein engineering Design of non natural proteins
Begins with a natural protein that is modified in some way Altering the properties of an antibody Altering proteins to serve as drugs

63 Enzymes Kind of protein Act as catalysts Produced by living cells
Highly specific

64 Catalyst Substance that alters the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed or used up itself.

65 Enzymes Make enzyme more specific in terms of the reactions it catalyzes How effective it is How long it lasts Study of enzymes is enzymology Given names and numbers provided by the Enzyme commission (EC)

66 Enzymes Classified into 6 groups Each has a four digit number
First number is the group into which it fits

67 Lipids Organic compound of fatty acid
Soluble in organic solvents but not water Form fairly large group of oily or fatty substances Important in animal nutrition Animal fats and plant oils are lipids

68 Lipids Classified into three groups Simple, complex and derived
Simple – fats, oils and waxes Complex – phospholipids Derived - steroids

69 Lipids Concentrated sources of food energy
Higher calories than protein or carbs Some help form membranes Cholesterol is a steroid lipid Transgenic forms of canola have been developed with larger amounts of desired lipids Margarine


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