8 Usually there is an electron For every proton in an atom. This keeps them electricallyNeutral.When the number of electronsIs different than the number ofProtons, the atom is calledAn Ion.
9 If there are more protons then the atom will have a Positive charge. If there are more electrons,Then the atom will have aNegative charge.
10 An element is a substance made Of only one kind of atom, and It is therefore a pure substance.Elements are organized in thePeriodic table and representedBy a 1, 2, or 3 letter symbol.H, O, C, Fe, Na, UUQ
11 Atoms can join together with Other atoms to form stable Substances. A force that joins atoms isCalled a chemical bond.A compound is a substance madeOf the joined atoms of 2 orMore different elements.
12 For example, water is a compound That is made up of hydrogen And oxygen atoms.
13 A covalent bond forms when 2 or More atoms share electrons To form a molecule.
14 Water is a molecule, so is Carbon dioxide and oxygen gas.
15 When you have an unequal Distribution of electrical charge, A hydrogen bond is formed.
16 Is an atom that has gained Or lost electrons, giving it a charge. If you remember, an ionIs an atom that has gainedOr lost electrons,giving it a charge.When 2 ions come together, theyCreate an ionic bond.In an ionic bond, the electronsAre given up by one atom andGained by the other atoms.
18 Water is nearly 70% or your body. So water is a major component 2-2 Water and SolutionsWater is nearly 70% or your body.So water is a major componentOf cells.
19 The hydrogen bonds between Water molecules cause cohesion Water bonds to itselfAnd other substances.The hydrogen bonds betweenWater molecules cause cohesionOf liquid water.Cohesion is an attractionBetween substances of theSame kind.
20 Water molecules are also Attracted to other substances, This is adhesion.Adhesion is the attraction betweenDifferent substances.
21 Many substances dissolve In water. When you dissolve something intoWater, you make a solution.For example, when you put saltIn water, it will dissolve and theSalt molecules evenly distributeThroughout the water.
22 LIKE DISSOLVES LIKE!! Polar molecules, like water, will Dissolve other polar molecules,Like salt.Nonpolar molecules, like oil, willDissolve other nonpolar molecules,Like fat.LIKE DISSOLVES LIKE!!
23 An acid is a compound that when Dissolved in water, will make More hydrogen ions (H+) thanPure water.A base is a compound that whenDissolved in water, will make moreHydroxide ions (OH-) thanPure water.
24 Strength of an acid or base, The pH scale was invented. In order to measure theStrength of an acid or base,The pH scale was invented.Acids have a pH less than 7,Bases have a pH more than 7,And pure water is neutral at 7.
26 Things in your body that are not Made up of water are made 2-3 Chemistry of CellsThings in your body that are notMade up of water are madeMade of organic compounds.Almost all organic compoundsContain hydrogen, oxygen andCarbon.
27 Carbohydrates are organic Compounds made of carbon, Hydrogen and oxygen atoms inA ratio of 1:2:1.Carbohydrates are a keySource of energy, and areFound in most foods.
28 Carbohydrates are single sugars Called monsaccharides. The building blocks ofCarbohydrates are single sugarsCalled monsaccharides.C6H12O6
29 Energy stored in bonds between elements is released when bonds are broken. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy
30 There are 3 simple sugars, Glucose, galactose and fructose. They all have the same formulaC6H12O6!!
31 A disaccharide forms when two monosaccharides are combined. For Exampleglucose + glucose = maltose(formed during the digestion of starches)
32 A polysaccharide is a chain of 3 or more monosaccharides (beaded necklace)
33 In animals-glycogen (animal starch) stored in liver and muscles Polysaccharides are a way excess sugars are stored in living things. For example:In plants-starchIn animals-glycogen (animal starch) stored in liver and muscles
34 Lipids are organic molecules that Are nonpolar and thus not Soluble in water.They include fats, phosolipids,Steroids, and waxes.At room temp. fats are solids and oils are liquids.
35 Lipids have 4 functions… long term energy storageb. insulationc. protective cushion between organsd. biological membranes
36 All lipids are made with a glycerol And chains of fatty acids.
37 A protein is a chain or molecules Called amino acids linked Together. An amino acid is the buildingBlock of proteins.Contain NITROGEN as well as carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.
38 Proteins are essential for growth and repair of body (at the cell level). They make up most of the solid “stuff” within your body (ex. Muscle, skin, hair, organs, …)