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Mr. Cengel.  Matter- Anything that occupies space and has mass (weight)  Solid  Liquid  Gas.

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Presentation on theme: "Mr. Cengel.  Matter- Anything that occupies space and has mass (weight)  Solid  Liquid  Gas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mr. Cengel

2  Matter- Anything that occupies space and has mass (weight)  Solid  Liquid  Gas

3  Physical Changes- Do not alter basic nature of substance  Ex- Ice Melting to become water  Chemical Changes- Do alter basic composition of the substance  Ex- Chemical digestion of food

4  The ability to do work or put matter into motion  Kinetic Energy- Energy in motion  Potential Energy- Inactive or stored energy

5  Chemical- Stored in the bonds of chemical substances, released when bonds are broken  Ex. Energy from the foods we eat  Electrical- Results from the movement of charged particles.  Ex. Charged particles moving across cell membranes  Mechanical – Movement of matter  Ex. Muscle contraction  Radiant- Energy of the electromagnetic spectrum  Ex. Body turning sunlight into Vitamin D

6  Protons- Located in Nucleus, Positive charge  Neutrons- Located in Nucleus, neutral charge  Electrons- Located in orbitals around the Nucleus, Negative charge that is equal in strength to positive charge of protons  Two or more atoms form a molecule

7  Monomer- One molecule  Polymer- Two or more molecules bonded together

8  Organic compounds- Carbon containing compounds  Ex. Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins  Inorganic- Lack carbon and tend to be simpler, smaller molecules  Ex. Water, Salts

9  Ionic Bonds- Electrons are transferred from one atom to another  Covalent Bonds-electrons are shared between atoms  Hydrogen Bonds- weak bond, electrons and protons are attracted to each other

10  The most abundant inorganic compound in the body  High Heat capacity- Absorbs and releases large amounts of heat  Solvent Properties- Substance can easily be dissolved  Chemical Reactivity- Helps chemical reactions take place Ex. Breakdown carbohydrates (hydrolysis)  Cushioning- Protection ex cerebrospinal fluid

11  Most common in the body are calcium and phosphorus  Vital to body function  Electrolytes- Substances that conduct an electrical current in a solution

12  Acids-Sour Taste, Proton donor  Bases- Bitter Taste, Proton Acceptor pH scale- Measures acidity of substances


14  Sugars and Starches  Carbon Hydrogen and Oxygen  Classified according to size- Monosaccharide, Disaccharide, and polysaccharide

15  Meaning one sugar  Known as simple sugars  Single chain  Examples-Glucose, Fructose and Galactose


17  Meaning double sugars  Formed when two simple sugars are joined by dehydration synthesis  Examples- Sucrose (Glucose and fructose), Lactose (Glucose and Galactose) and Maltose (Glucose and Glucose)  Must be broken down during digestion to be absorbed



20  Meaning many sugars  Long branching chains of simple sugars  Lack the sweetness of simple and double sugars  Examples-Starch (Stored Sugar in Plants) and Glycogen (Stored Glucose in animal muscle)

21  Large and diverse group of organic compounds  Food Sources- Animal products, dairy products, nuts, seeds, oils  Examples-Neutral fats, phospholipids, cholesterol, bile salts, Vitamin D, hormones, and steroids  Made of Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms  Insoluble in water


23  Account for over 50% of organic matter in the body  Construction materials of cells  Made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen  Amino Acids are the building blocks of proteins. 20 varieties. 8 essential  Amino Acids are joined to form complex protiens

24  Fibrous- Structural proteins, provide strength to tissues  Collagen- Found in bones, cartilage and tendons. Most abundant protein in the body.  Keratin- Found in skin, hair and nails  Globular- Functional proteins  Hormones-Regulate growth and development  Antibodies-Provide immunity  Enzymes- regulate almost every chemical reaction that occurs in the body.


26  Monomer- Nucleotides  DNA- Contains genetic information  RNA- Carries out Protein synthesis

27  Adenosine Triphosphate  Provides a form of chemical energy for the cell  Created through cellular respiration  Occurs in the mitochondria  Glucose and Oxygen are reactants  ATP and Carbon Dioxide are the products

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