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New England, Middle, Southern and Backcountry Colonies

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Presentation on theme: "New England, Middle, Southern and Backcountry Colonies"— Presentation transcript:

1 New England, Middle, Southern and Backcountry Colonies
We have looked at how the colonies started. Now let’s look at---- How the New England colonies grew and prospered. How the middle colonies became a society of great diversity. How the southern colonies had an economy dependant upon slave labor. The types of people who settled In the backcountry

What was a town in New England like? New England officials didn’t sell scattered plots of land to individuals. They sold large plots of land to groups. The groups were mostly Puritan church congregations. After buying the land they would divide it up and build farmhouses and a meetinghouse near a central square for public activities.

3 New England’s Economy Most of the people practiced subsistence farming
This means they grew enough for themselves and had a little left over to trade in town. Why do you think this was? New England’s soil was poor and rocky—bad for farming. The Atlantic ocean provided other economic opportunities: World’s best fishing grounds Forests provided wood for a ship building industry **FISH AND WOOD WERE VALUABLE FOR TRADE

4 Atlantic Trade Triangular Trade Navigation Acts—
This was the name given to a trading route with 3 stops. They made huge profits this. Navigation Acts— England saw the huge profits being made in the colonies and wanted to make $$$ too. These acts taxed goods not sold to England. (this led to smuggling)

5 African Americans in New England
Slavery was not economical in New England. Small farms did not require slave labor. Those who did own slaves in New England, would hire them out to work on docks, or in shops/warehouses. Some slaves were allowed to keep their wages—they would use this to buy their freedom. New England became home to more free blacks than any other region.

6 The Middle Colonies: Farms and Cities
The soil in the Middle Colonies was better for farming than in New England and the climate was milder. These good conditions attracted immigrants from Europe who brought advanced farming methods –DUTCH AND GERMAN. Their skills, knowledge and hard work allowed them to raise and produce CA$H Crops (crops raised to be sold for $$$). CORN, WHEAT,RYE AND OTHER GRAINS The grains were taken to gristmills and ground up into flour.

7 Cities Prosper Harbors along the coasts of the Middle Colonies were perfect sites for cities. Merchants lived in these cities—they exported Ca$h crops and imported goods. They were valuable port cities. New York City Philadelphia- fastest growing city at the time They grew because of the trade in flour, bread, furs and whale oil. The wealth of these cities led to improvements in living—graceful buildings, paved roads and streetlights.

8 A Diverse Region Many different groups of people arrived at the ports of the Middle Colonies—leading to great diversity. Germans Dutch Scots-Irish African Irish Scottish Welsh Swedish French

9 Tolerance The diversity of the Middle Colonies helped to promote tolerance for various cultures. The Dutch in NY and the Quakers in Pennsylvania both practiced religious tolerance. Quakers insisted on the equality of men and women and were the first to raise a voice against slavery.

10 African Americans in the Middle Colonies
The tolerant attitude in the Middle Colonies did not prevent slavery. NYC had more people of African descent than any of the Northern colonies. This led to tensions between races and eventually some slave rebellions.

11 The Southern Colonies: Plantations and Slavery
The South’s soil and almost year-round growing season were ideal for plantation crops like: Rice Tobacco Indigo Corn Cotton These crops required a lot of labor to produce as ca$h crops—this led to a turn to slave labor. This was because indentured servants were leaving plantations to start their own farms---and because Native American labor was unsuccessful. (About 40% of the population in the Southern Colonies were enslaved Africans).

12 Plantations Expand & The Planter Class
An increase in slavery allowed plantations to expand in South Carolina and Georgia. Planters with a large number of slaves grew even wealthier. This led to a new wealthy social class The planter class. The planter class held most of the political and economic power in the South.

13 Life Under Slavery Southern plantations had groups or slaves that were watched by an overseer (watched and directed the work of slaves). Overseers often whipped slaves and were brutal. Despite these conditions, Africans kept customs from their homelands which became a basis for African-American culture. Africans fought against their enslavement in various ways: Work slowly on purpose Damage goods Pretend not to understand orders Slave rebellions

14 Slave Rebellions Stono Rebellion
Famous rebellion of slaves in Charles Town, SC This rebellion of slaves led planters to make slave laws stricter. Slaves were forbidden to leave a plantation without permission Slaves were not allowed to meet with free blacks.

15 The Backcountry This was a region of dense forest to the west of the colonies—located near the Appalachian Mountains. The first people to settle here traded with Native Americans As more people moved to the area, conflicts with the Natives arose.

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