Presentation on theme: "Ethics BHV 390: Research Methods Kimberly Porter Martin, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:
Ethics BHV 390: Research Methods Kimberly Porter Martin, Ph.D.
Why Be Ethical? Most unethical behavior results from a lack of awareness, or pressures to take shortcuts in building a career, gaining prestige or holding a job. Ethical social research takes longer to complete, costs more money, is more complicated, is more difficult to do, and is required by professional associations.
Kinds of Unethical Behavior Scientific misconduct – occurs when a researcher falsifies or distorts the data or methods of data collection Research fraud – occurs when a researcher fakes or invents data or falsely reports how research was conducted. Plagiarism – is fraud that occurs when a researcher steals the ideas or writings of another or uses them without permission. Misuse of Power – taking advantage of participants who trust the researcher because of credentials, expertise, training and/or respect for the role of science.
Human Subjects Issues Presence of risk for harm to participants Amount of risk for participants Anonymity and/or confidentially Informed Consent Special populations Sponsor interference
Harm to Participants The first responsibility of a researcher is to do no harm to participants. Social research can harm a subject or participant in t least four ways. Physical harm – basic safety and protection from injury, special provisions for high-risk individuals. Psychological harm – care not to subject people to stressful, embarrassing, anxiety-producing or unpleasant situations. Legal Harm – protecting people from increased risk for arrest; dealing with the discovery of illegal behavior. Deception – social researchers follow the ethical principle of voluntary consent: never force anyone to participate in research. Any researcher anticipating the need to use deception would need to receive guidance from an IRB, or Institutional Review Board.
Participant Privacy Rights Privacy – the right of the individual to decide whether to share personal information, including identity, with others. Anonymity – the right to remain unknown and nameless. Confidentiality – the right to keep information that is shared with others from being distributed.
Informed Consent It is a basic ethical principle of research never to force anyone to participate in research. Participation it must be completely voluntary. It is not enough to get permission. Researchers must acquire a written agreement that reveals any risks and tells how confidentiality will be protected.
Components of an Informed Consent Statement Identification of the researcher and/or institution responsible for the research. A brief description of the purpose and procedures. A statement of any possible risks or discomfort. A guarantee of anonymity and/or the confidentiality of records. A statement that participation is completely voluntary and can be terminated at any time without penalty. A description of any alternative procedures. A statement of any benefits or compensation available and the number of subjects involved. An offer to provide a summary of the findings.
Special Populations Children Those who are developmentally delayed Those who suffer from mental illness May not be fully capable of making an informed decision and hence it may be necessary to obtain permission from a legal guardian.
Special Populations Prison inmates Employees Military personnel Must not be coerced into participating in research by those who have power over them.
Sponsor Interference Asking the wrong research question. Requesting a review after a decision has already by made. Demanding an inappropriate design or data collection technique. Interfering with the design or procedures to insure the research produces desired results. Suppressing/deleting positive results in order to reduce a program Suppressing/deleting negative results in order to continue a program.