Presentation on theme: "Inclusion: a regional perspective"— Presentation transcript:
1 Inclusion: a regional perspective Dr. Mahshid SalehiChild & Family PsychologistDirector, Dubai Center for Special NeedsMember of the American Psychological Association
2 What is Inclusion?Inclusion is a philosophy of Education based on the belief that every person has the right to fully participate in society…Inclusion is a common acceptance of differences
3 MainstreamingThe term “mainstreaming” is often times confused with inclusion in that it also involves providing a child with special needs and education in a general education classroom
4 History of Inclusion in the US Until late 70’s, students with disabilities were typically placed in segregated school settings1970 saw researchers, policy makers, parents and educators seek out to integrate special and general education servicesIn the “The education for All Handicapped Children Act”In 1990, Act was latter named “Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)”
5 Inclusive EducationThe practice of welcoming, valuing, empowering and supporting diverse academic and social learning among students of all abilities is called Inclusive Education
6 Debate on Inclusive education Advocates of inclusion believe that:Full inclusion is suitable for all students with disabilitiesThe same techniques in teaching and level of care that is found in a segregated school can also be implemented in an ordinary school settingAll children have the right to learn in an integrated class settingChildren should not be discriminated against by being excluded or sent away because of their disabilityChildren show improvement, academically and socially in integrated settingsAll children need an education that will help them develop friendships and prepare them for life within mainstream society.Segregation teaches children to be fearful and ignorant. This approach breeds prejudices
7 Advantages of Inclusive education Friendships develop, non- disabled students are more appreciative of differences.Students with disabilities are more motivated.True acceptance of diversity ultimately develops within the school environment and is then carried into the home, work place and community.
8 Disadvantages of Inclusive Education Children with special needs can have few opportunities to play sports, participate in social activities and make friendsChildren with intellectual disabilities share no interaction with others.This scenario is counterproductive and there remains a lack of systematic evidence on the impact of Inclusion on children with special needs.
9 Disadvantages of Inclusive Education When inclusion is not effectively implemented research has shown that it can be a lonely world for those with disabilities.
10 “Inclusion may not be beneficial for all students” Results of various research projects and studies indicate that…“Inclusion may not be beneficial for all students”
11 The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) in the USA is one organization which supports the idea that full inclusion is not suitable for all those with disabilitiesEspecially for:Children who are medically fragileChildren with severe behavioral disordersChildren with severe physical disabilities
12 AFT’s main concernsChildren losing the multi-disciplinary treatment when they are placed in a regular schoolWhether or not the Teachers are qualified to handle the child’s special needsThe low adult-to-child ratioChildren not receiving proper support to succeed
13 Inclusion in the UAEThe current trend in the UAE is to encourage parents and teacher to allow the child to be mainstreamed or included in to the regular classrooms. It is believed by some educators that special needs students will benefit from social interaction with mainstream students and from the enriched educational environment
14 Barriers to Inclusive Education in UAE Resistance to the idea of students with or without disabilities sharing the same classroom.PerceptiveCulturalEmotional2. In most cases local schools are not staffed adequately to offer education to students with varying special needs such asHearing impairmentVisual ImpairmentPhysical challenges
15 Barriers to Inclusive Education in UAE 3. In most cases they need a multidisciplinary approach to teaching , functional life skills cannot be addressed in a mainstream setting4. Architectural barriers prevent children with physical disabilities out of mainstream schools
16 Overcoming barriersThe multi-disciplinary services, such as physical, occupational and speech therapy, must be availableThe building must be designed to accommodate students with physical disabilities (which includes: accessibility to the classroom, playground and all other facilities on campus)Ensure availability of assistive technology and adaptive toys
17 Overcoming barriersThe classroom teacher must be properly trained and believe that the students with disabilities can succeedThe regular student body should be informed that a student with special needs will be joining the classThe teachers must be committed to collaborative practice in educationPolicies and procedures must be in place to monitor the student’s progress and testing
18 Overcoming barriers Instructional Methods: Teachers must have the knowledge and skills to adapt the curriculum to best suit the individual needs of the studentA variety of instructional methods should be available and utilizedTeachers must promote a cooperative learning environment and encourage socialization
19 Inclusion at the workplace Recent government policy has delivered some significant improvements in the employment prospects of people with special needsIncreased awareness and acceptance has changed the mind set of the people in the community
20 Awareness and Interaction is key towards Success!
22 A Team Built for Success: Student Training- Employer Support
23 Goals Independent Living Long Term Employment opportunities Support for Employers
24 Inclusion at the workplace Five recommended areas of Intervention: 1) Providing effective early support and guidance to overcome the barriers they may face in order to work efficiently 2) Improving the skills and in-work support needed to enhance the employability of people with special needs 3) Connecting people with challenges with work by making transition to employment less risky and complicated 4) Engaging employers to improve the attitudes toward people with disability and their understanding of what it means to employ a person with special needs 5) Finally, building information networks to bring together and disseminate important information to people with special needs and to their employers, family and friends
25 Parents’ role in inclusion Parents are their children’s first teacher; therefore, they should be able to work and communicate with teachers and decide what would be the best place for their childOne of the most important roles that a parent has, in addition to finding a right place, is to observe, monitor and support their children’s progress
26 Parents Government Educational System Community Inclusion Model SuccessfulInclusion Model