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FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array)

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Presentation on theme: "FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array)"— Presentation transcript:

1 FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array)
Presented By: Obaid ur Rehman Badar Hussain

2 FPGA * A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is a Programmable Logic Device(PLD) with higher densities and capable of implementing different functions in a short period of time. * Topics covered:- FPGA Overview Logic Block FPGA Routing Techniques Programming Methodology FPGA Design Flow

3 History Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM) fuse programming
n- address i/p can implement n i/p logic fun. Problem: Area efficiency. Programmable Logic Array (PLA) Programmable AND plane followed by programmable or wired OR plane. Sum of product form Problem : Two level programming adds delay

4 Next Programmable Array Logic (PAL)
Programmable AND plane and fixed OR plane. Flexible comparably. All these PLA and PAL are Simple Programmable Logic Devices (SPLD). Problem: Logic plane structure grows rapidly with number of inputs

5 Next - To mitigate the problem
Complex Programmable Logic Devices (CPLD) programmable interconnect multiple SPLDs. Problem : Extending to higher density difficult Less flexibility

6 FPGA overview 2-D array of logic blocks and flip-flops with programmable interconnections. Compact design User can configure Intersections between the logic blocks The function of each block

7 Why do we need FPGAs? World of Integrated Circuits Full-Custom ASICs
Semi-Custom ASICs User Programmable PLD FPGA

8 Which Way to Go? High performance Low development cost Low power
ASICs FPGAs High performance Low development cost Low power Short time to market Low cost in high volumes Reprogrammable

9 Other FPGA Advantages Manufacturing cycle for ASIC is very costly, lengthy and engages lots of manpower Mistakes not detected at design time have large impact on development time and cost FPGAs are perfect for rapid prototyping of digital circuits Easy upgrades like in case of software Unique applications

10 Programming Methodology
Electrically programmable switches are used to program FPGA Properties of programmable switch determine on- resistance, parasitic capacitance, volatility, reprogram ability, size etc. Various programming techniques are:- SRAM programming technology Floating Gate Programming Anti fuse programming methodology

11 SRAM programming technology Use Static RAM cells to control pass gates or multiplexers. 1= closed switch connection 0= open For mux, SRAM determines the mux input selection process. Advantage Fast re-programmability Standard IC fabrication Tech. is used Disadvantage SRAM volatile Requires large area

12 Why better ? FPGA Disadvantage
FPGA programmed using electrically programmable switches Routing architectures are complex. Logic is implemented using multiple levels of lower fan-in gates. Shorter time to market Ability to re-program in the field to fix bugs FPGA Disadvantage FPGAs are generally slower than their application- specific integrated circuit (ASIC) Can't handle as complex a design, and draw more power.

13 Application Reconfigurable computing.
Applications of FPGAs include DSP, software-defined radio. The inherent parallelism of the logic resources on the FPGA allows for considerable compute throughput.

14 FPGA Design and Programming
To define the behavior of the FPGA the user provides a hardware description language (HDL) or a schematic design. Then, using an electronic design automation tool, a technology-mapped net list is generated. The net list can then be fitted to the actual FPGA architecture using a process called place-and-route. The user will validate the map, place and route results via timing analysis, simulation, and other verification methodologies. Once the design and validation process is complete, the binary file generated used to configure the FPGA.


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