# Programmable Array Logic (PAL) Fixed OR array programmable AND array Fixed OR array programmable AND array Easy to program Easy to program Poor flexibility.

## Presentation on theme: "Programmable Array Logic (PAL) Fixed OR array programmable AND array Fixed OR array programmable AND array Easy to program Easy to program Poor flexibility."— Presentation transcript:

Programmable Array Logic (PAL) Fixed OR array programmable AND array Fixed OR array programmable AND array Easy to program Easy to program Poor flexibility Poor flexibility Boolean function must be simplified to fit into each section Boolean function must be simplified to fit into each section Unlike, PLA product term cannot be shared among two or more OR gates Unlike, PLA product term cannot be shared among two or more OR gates

PAL with 4-input 4-output 3-wide AND-OR structure

Use PAL to design combinational logic circuit Boolean function Boolean function simplified simplified PAL programming table is similar to that of PLA except that only inputs of AND gates need to be programmed. PAL programming table is similar to that of PLA except that only inputs of AND gates need to be programmed.

PAL programming table

Fuse map of PAL

Sequential Programmable Device Digital systems are designed using flip- flop and gates Digital systems are designed using flip- flop and gates PLD contains only gates PLD contains only gates Sequential Programmable Device include both flip-flop and gates Sequential Programmable Device include both flip-flop and gates Three major types: Three major types: 1. Sequential (simple) programmable logic device (SPLD) 2. Sequential programmable logic device (CPLD) 3. Field programmable gate array (FPGA)

SPLD SPLD SPLD: AND-OR array + F.F. (See Fig. 7-18) SPLD: AND-OR array + F.F. (See Fig. 7-18) Output can be taken from OR gates or output of F.F. Output can be taken from OR gates or output of F.F. F.F. can be D or JK F.F. can be D or JK Each section is called macrocell include sum- of-product combinational logic and a F.F. Each section is called macrocell include sum- of-product combinational logic and a F.F. Typically include 8-10 macrocell in a chip (IC) Typically include 8-10 macrocell in a chip (IC)

SPLD

Field-programmable logic sequential (FPLS) First programmable device developed to support sequential circuits First programmable device developed to support sequential circuits PLA + several F.F. (programmable to D or JK) PLA + several F.F. (programmable to D or JK) Did not succeed commercially because it has to many programmable connection Did not succeed commercially because it has to many programmable connection

Complex PLD (CPLD) Collection of several individual PLD Collection of several individual PLD Fig. 7-20 shows a general configuration of CPLD Fig. 7-20 shows a general configuration of CPLD PLD is interconnected through programmable switch matrix PLD is interconnected through programmable switch matrix I/O blocks provide the connection to IC pin I/O blocks provide the connection to IC pin Each I/O is driven by 3-state buffer and can be programmed to act as input or output Each I/O is driven by 3-state buffer and can be programmed to act as input or output The programmable switch matrix receives input from I/O block and directs it to the individual macrocell The programmable switch matrix receives input from I/O block and directs it to the individual macrocell

CPLD

Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) VLSI VLSI Elementary element is logic block Elementary element is logic block Consists hundreds or thousands logic block Consists hundreds or thousands logic block Logic block consists of look-up table, multiplexers, gates and F.F. Logic block consists of look-up table, multiplexers, gates and F.F. Look-up table is a truth table stored in a SRAM and provides the combinational function for the logic block Look-up table is a truth table stored in a SRAM and provides the combinational function for the logic block Remember that PAL or PLA is used for macrocell in CPLD Remember that PAL or PLA is used for macrocell in CPLD