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Chapter 14 Research about Enforcement of Sanctions.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 Research about Enforcement of Sanctions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 Research about Enforcement of Sanctions

2 From the headlines Which measurements represent real people? Experts on body shapes and sizes Analyze data of the human body for use In clothing sizing Furniture Technology Buildings Collect data from 3-dimensional body scans

3 Survey of 5000 people Shopping for clothing is difficult Finding clothes that fit was biggest problem Differing sizes by style and brand Shopping is time-consuming Have to try on everything Data have potential to help development of clothing sizes that match trends in body sizes

4 Shopping for clothing is difficult

5 Attempts to enforce sanctions in everyday life are revealed in: Feelings of pressure to conform Peer pressure Internalization Efforts by violators to comply with the norm Complaints about enforcement or non- enforcement Active efforts to resist enforcement Complacency

6 Feelings of pressure to conform

7 Questions to answer How does the enforcement of sanctions relate to the process of social control? What is the nature of research related to the enforcement of sanctions? What research methods are used to investigate the enforcement of sanctions? What tools are used to collect data for research about the enforcement of sanctions?

8 Body modifications Alterations to the body itself Temporary (e.g., weight loss, age) Semi-permanent (e.g., hair color) Permanent (e.g., breast augmentation) Efforts to enforce sanctions related to the normative body can encourage people to undertake temporary, semi-permanent, or permanent body modifications

9 Temporary body modification: Weight Obesity is a norm violation Obesityweighing a certain % more than normal (e.g., 20% above normal weight) Obese are negatively defined by weight Judged as responsible for the obesity Deterred from social interaction Experience sanctions, e.g., finger- pointing, shame, ridicule

10 Judged as responsible for the obesity

11 Interviews of 15 obese women Negative sanctions during childhood Derision Castigation Ostracism Alienation Name-calling Nicknames Teasing

12 Emotional reactions to sanctions Hurt Anger Resentment Frustration Loneliness Stigmatization

13 Cultural appearance norms Had been internalized + Sanctions of significant others

14 Saliency of norm violation Excess weight – most salient physical characteristic of obese women Violation of norm is immediately apparent to others Not consciously aware of how large they were until Reflection in mirror Picture

15 Reflection in mirror

16 Low self-esteem Described themselves as Overweight Ugly Guilty Depressed Stupid Still dieted and tried to lose weight

17 Feeling guilty and out of control

18 High self-esteem Felt good about themselves Described themselves as Obese Educational and professional accomplishments

19 High self-esteem

20 Result of attempts to enforce sanctions Acquiescence (conformity) to appearance norms Negative self-image Low self-esteem Resistance to (refusal to accept) appearance norms Positive self-images High self-esteem

21 Temporary body modification: Age 22 women aged 61 to 92 interviewed Beauty synonymous with youthfulness and slimness Ageist beauty norm How do older women cope with effects of aging on body image embodied experiences relationship between identity and body image Embodiedgiving tangible or visible form to something abstract, e.g., personal or social identity

22 Double standardPhysical signs of aging are worse for women than men

23 Body image Perceptions and feelings about the body Perceptual component How we perceive our bodies Attitudinal component How we feel about our bodies Body image is a mental picture created by the interaction of many factors

24 Body imageperceptions and feelings about the body

25 Weight concerns women of all ages Normal for women to gain weight as they age Longitudinal study of older people Over a number of years Womens greatest concern was memory loss 2 nd greatest concernweight changes Men were not concerned about weight

26 Normal for women to gain weight as they age

27 Weight concerns women of all ages

28 Descriptions of older womens bodies Ugly Sagging Yuck Disaster Awful Evidence of internalization of cultural beauty norms

29 As we age, the waist and abdomen lose their shape

30 Loss of physical beauty Unavoidable Part of a natural aging process Outside of their control

31 Attitudes Negative attitudes toward their appearance Importance of being healthy and independent Triviality of emphases on appearance Primacy of good health over physical attractiveness Sense of loss about what they could do Loss of health, mobility, energy

32 Triviality of emphases on appearance

33 Current fashions & fashion models Represent extreme and unattractive role models for young women Not an influence for these older women Weight gain the cause of self-criticism and monitoring

34 Extreme and unattractive role models

35 Weight gain Moral failure Lack of discipline Due to personal choices Personal responsibility Expressed concern about weight gain Negative sentiments about their weight Dieted

36 Resistance to enforcement of sanctions-- shift in priorities Health Freedom from disease Freedom from chronic illness Freedom from declining energy Function More important than physical attractiveness Healthy people are attractive people

37 Contradiction Women acknowledged inevitability of the natural life cycle and changes that accompany aging Rejected cultural beauty norms But they had negative body images If older women do not aspire to cultural beauty norms, why are their body images not more positive?

38 Semi-permanent body modification: Hair color Naturally blonde women interviewed 16% of U.S. females born blonde 5% remain naturally blonde as adults Brown hair is the norm Blonde women are both positive and negative deviants


40 Positive deviance Behaviors or conditions that both Over conform to the norms and Are positively appraised Violation of a norm

41 Positive deviance

42 Negative deviance Behaviors or conditions that under conform, or fail to conform, to normative expectations subsequently receive negative evaluations Violation of a norm

43 Blonde women Positive deviantsreceive positive evaluations for exceeding normative appearance expectations Negative deviantsreceive negative evaluations and negative treatment Numerous stereotypes about blondes Blondes are treated differently than women with other hair colors

44 Positive and negative deviance

45 Twenty blonde women Experiences of being blonde as a Child Adolescent Adult Blonde stereotypes Positives & negatives of being blonde Cultural definition of hair attractiveness Reactions of others to blonde hair

46 Cultural advantages for blondes Blonde is a beauty standard Disproportionately represented in appearance-based occupations Positive responses were common

47 Cultural stereotypes Innocence–depicted as angels, saints, etc. Sexy/funblondes have more fun Easysex kitten Dumbdumb blonde ditzy blonde

48 Dumb blonde stereotype


50 Coping Strategies Ignore remarks or return joke Self-fulfilling prophecy Overcompensate Fight back Become a member of the dominant group Relationships with other women negatively affected by their attractiveness & hair color

51 Permanent body modification: Elective mammoplasty – Gagne & McGaughey In-depth interviews with 15 women who had elective mammoplasty Breast augmentation, breast reduction, or corrective surgery on the breasts All wanted to achieve normalcy

52 Plastic surgery Permanent body modification

53 Sources of the norm Ideals generated by the media Observations of other women Perceptions of mens observations of themselves and other women

54 Cosmetic surgery Seen as a means of developing an embodied self with which they were comfortable Congruency between mind and body Prompted people to treat them in the way they perceived themselves Self-confidence increased

55 Hegemony Control or influence by one group (e.g., men) over another (e.g., women) Changing ones body to fit hegemonic (i.e., male) ideals of attractiveness has potential to Improve social opportunities Improve life at work command greater respect better able to compete

56 Hegemonic ideals

57 Permanent body modification More fashion options Greater control over clothing choices

58 Social factors influenced decision The media Womens magazines Movies Television programs The fashion industry Clothing mass-produced for normal sizes Norm is thin and proportionate

59 Before surgery Used bras to maximize, minimize, or modify Techniques to draw attention to or away from their breasts Techniques to draw attention toward more attractive parts of their body Wore oversize blouses, T-shirts, and sweatshirts to disguise their breasts Clothing did not offer a solution to their problem

60 Baggy clothes, oversized T-shirts and sweatshirts

61 After surgery Changed their wardrobes Accommodate changed body proportions Include items they had longed to wear Hegemonic gazesense that individual women have that everyone is looking at them Feel discomfort if they fail to meet the cultural beauty norm

62 Hegemonic gaze

63 Body supplementsitems placed on the body by: Wrapping item around the body Suspending item from the body Wearing pre-shaped items Inserting items into the body Clipping item to the body Adhering item to the body Holding or carrying the item

64 Dress has ambiguous meanings A message that can be understood in more than one way It is not clear which meaning is intended Incorrect interpretation of the message is always possible Aesthetic rules Social rules Cultural customs

65 What does this dress mean?

66 Uncertainty caused by ambiguous dress meanings is revealed in Efforts to keep school regulations current with changing styles Inconsistency in enforcing rules Conformity with letter but not spirit of the rules Use of dress to deliberately cause a reaction Use of dress to demonstrate group affiliation Deliberate failure to understand meaning Presumption that meanings are unambiguous Context-dependency of dress meanings

67 Ridicule in a school context Peer pressure as expressed in ridicule Used to belittle and exclude Those who did not fit in with the group

68 Adolescents responded to ridicule by Doing nothing Concealing stigmatized objects More closely watching what their peers wore Seeking safe havens Defending unpopular choices Adopting popular objects

69 Ridicule Observing or experiencing ridicule Influenced Purchase Use Discard Of possessions

70 Ridicule affected purchase decisions

71 Learned which items were associated with: Avoidance groupsgroups to stay away from Aspirational groupsgroups in which one would like to become a member Conformed because of Feelings of inadequacy Concerns about belonging

72 Symbolic meanings of athletic shoes 30 children, aged 8 to 12, from poor homes Stereotypes about owners of athletic shoes Expensive brand nameowner young and rich Inexpensive unbrandedowner old and poor Child who wore branded athletic shoes Popular Fit in with peers Preferred to talk to

73 Symbolic meanings of athletic shoes

74 Attempts to enforce sanctions revealed In peer pressure To wear athletic shoes their friends wore To make friends and fit in To avoid teasing

75 Strongest influence on children is their peer group Influence starts as early as age 6 Becomes more important during adolescence Become aware of peers favorite products Consider these preferences when making their own consumer choices, esp. symbolic consumer products such as dress

76 Peer group influence

77 Enforcement of sanctions Children feared their peers Would refuse to be friends with them Would bully them If they did not fit in by wearing right brand

78 Enforcement of sanctions Harassment Threats of being beaten up Bullying Picking on Not talking to someone Embarrassed to be seen with someone

79 Childrens awareness of brand names Brand awarenessability to identify the brand under different conditions. Includes Brand recognitioncorrectly identify a brand as being previously seen or heard Brand recallability to remember the brand when provided with a cue 5 and 6 year olds were aware of brands 9 to 11 year olds had more sophisticated level of awareness

80 Enforcement of sanctions for violation of dress codesGarot & Katz study Prohibit an embodied way of being Appearance is a central concern of youth Devote resources Significance of subtle details Variety and innovativeness of appearance Creative appearance derives from youth culture Self-regulating logic independent of school concerns

81 Significance of subtle details

82 Enforcement of dress code Common topic of conversation School employees do not understand meanings of student dress Look for something tangible to regulate Issues of power and obedience Many people involvedadministrators, teachers, students, parents, other adults

83 Issues of power and obedience

84 Enforcement implies character traits of the enforcer Feelings or sensibility Kindness or meanness Sympathetic or not Non-enforcement noted by peers and other students

85 Dress codes affect school culture When rules are enforced When exceptions are granted When uncertainties are debated Evolution of youth styles Rules change frequently Rules are frequently overlooked

86 Evolution of youth styles

87 Students use details of dress to: Elicit a response from others Create a self that responds to others responses Create a unique appearance Students choose their dress with their peers in mind, not school authorities

88 Students use dress to create a unique appearance

89 Enforcement of dress norms among refugee women Agencyaction, medium, or means by which something is accomplished Data collected as part of ethnographic case study of a Bosnian Muslim settlement Extensive participant observations and interviews with 14 women

90 In Bosnia Muslim women wore elaborate styles Hair Dress Makeup Emphasized femininity

91 Bosnian woman in Sarajevo

92 In Vermont Adopted some local dress practices Jeans Less elaborate makeup More casual clothing for everyday wear Ambivalent and critical of norms for womens dress in U.S.

93 Refugee women Had new audiences Increased range of permissible dress Changes in structure of everyday life

94 Resistance to U.S. dress norms Means to communicate a group identity Means to create that group identity for themselves

95 Dress communicates nonverbally Meanings change over time and space Meanings do not always translate easily from one location to another May interpret in new location according to Dress language of previous location Dress language of recent past Repeated interactions result in challenges to or modifications of dress norms from the past

96 Dress practices Rooted in history and culture Actively enforced in social interaction Social sanctions used to enforce and perpetrate womens dress codes Dress code enforcersolder women who used social disapproval, shame, gossip Encouraged and monitored feminine dress

97 Internalized mechanisms Self-discipline Self-surveillance Panoptic viewall-inclusive view Disciplinary gaze directed upon the self

98 Womens dress practices attributed to: Habit Repetition Enforcement by dress code enforcers

99 Changes to dress practices Brought about by a changed context New exigencies (urgent necessities) New routines New meanings of dress Wider range of dress options New dress code enforcers

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