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Using Situational awareness and decision making

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1 Using Situational awareness and decision making
Critical thinking Using Situational awareness and decision making Thinking About Thinking

2 Situational Awareness
Good situational awareness requires: Gathering data (sensing, perception), seeking cues in the environment Assembling information to give understanding (comprehension) Thinking ahead (projection) Thinking about situational awareness involves: Directing our attention to seek data; scanning a range of sources Evaluating information without bias, for accuracy and relevance Understanding, using our knowledge and previous experiences Comparing and checking, visualizing future events — ‘What if?’ Planning ahead, considering possible outcomes Play Defense Offense Future Now Situation SCAN EVALUATE ANTICIPATE CONSIDER Planning Ahead Gathering data Understanding

3 Decision Making O A D A Observe Analyze Deduce Act
Decision making requires an understanding of the situation and controlled thinking. Decision making involves assessment and choosing a course of action. The situation determines the urgency of the decision, risks and limits of action. O A D A Observe Analyze Deduce Act Controlled thinking: Reduces risk Moderates behavior Manages time constraints Uses knowledge; seeks options Judges relevance and the quality of the choice Prepares for action, evaluates the outcome or a future situation

4 Critical Thinking Critical thinking provides the mental control and discipline required for situational assessment and decision making. It involves several skills that can be learned, practiced and improved. Control your mind by: Seeking and understanding information, facts and data Effective planning, briefing and communication Increasing knowledge; gaining experience Learning within a context (situation) Maintain discipline by: Being aware of how you think; affects possession Evaluating your actions; having self regulation Being aware of all available resources Being sensitive to feedback Critical thinking is the skill of thinking about your thinking Think inside the box before you think outside of the box “Are we in charge of our thinking, or is our thinking in charge of us?“

5 Critical Thinking — Self awareness
Self awareness — self questioning, self monitoring Am I biased in my thinking? Have I made a plan for what I want to do? Are my ideas or knowledge on this issue correct? Am I aware of my thinking; what am I trying to do? Am I using all of the resources for what I want to do? Am I evaluating my thinking; what would I do differently next time? Am I aware of how well I am doing; do I need to change my actions or intentions? Monitoring is checking the quality or testing the accuracy of a situation on a regular basis. It is keeping a close watch over parameters and supervising the outcome. It is checking for threats in our thinking.

6 Critical Thinking — Knowledge
Improving your thinking — Knowledge About yourself Commitment: training, not letting feelings or individual preference detract from the game Positive attitudes: seeing the big picture, persistence, resourcefulness, learning from set-backs Attention to detail: determining relevance, assessing affects About the thinking processes Knowing the facts necessary to do a task by seeking information Knowing how to do a task, how to scan, understand and think ahead Knowing why certain strategies work, when to use them, why one is better than another Knowledge to control the thinking processes Self evaluation: assessing current technical knowledge, setting objectives, selecting resources Self regulation: checking progress; reviewing choices, procedures, objectives, resources Planning: choosing and planning a path to the objective, using procedures Planning is the process of thinking about what you will do in the event of something happening or not happening.

7 Critical Thinking — Habits
Improving your thinking — Habits Changing our thinking habits requires effort; clear thinking is an essential part of officiating and has to be developed throughout our careers. 5 Levels of skill: Unskilled: Basic training only provides those skills necessary to be on the field. Skilled: Continuation training and experience enable effective management. Effective: More technical knowledge, practiced skills and experience give an efficient operation. Efficient: Skillful command in controlling the game and crew leadership move toward a precision operation. Precision: An official who has gained and maintains precise technical and non-technical skills as a result of great personal effort. Expert thinkers Focus on central issues Identify relevant information Consider information on merit Test and check the basis of their awareness and decisions

8 Your thoughts control your actions.
Critical Thinking — Personal briefing Improving your thinking — Briefing Before games, self-briefing reinforces memory cues and knowledge, which aid the recall of information for use in situational assessment and decision making. Know what, who, where and when to prioritize your attention Always brief routine situations — repetition aids memory Structure the briefing along game situations Visualize your actions (position, players, calls) Consider the significant game situations Recall lessons from training Refresh mechanics and rules What if questions Do not rush: Your thoughts control your actions.

9 Critical Thinking — Personal debrief
Improving your thinking — Debrief After each game, consider the following points: Plus, Minus, Interesting Plus: What was good What went according to plan Minus: What was not so good, and why What didn’t you know; find the answer before the next game Interesting: Have you changed the way you see things: situations, penalties, players, mechanics What did you learn, why, and where did the information come from? Will you share this with others; if not why not? Anything for a commissioner, assignor to report? Any issues for confidential reporting? Did you experience: Administration, field, supply issues? Poor attitudes Biased opinions Mismanaged time Unanswered questions

10 Thinking about Situational Awareness and Decision Making
Situational awareness and decision making depend on our ability to think. Thinking enables humans to be very successful, but this ability also enables errors that, if not controlled, present risks in our daily activities. Value your ability, use it wisely Game Players Situations Monitor Senses: See Hear Decision Making Situational Awareness Review Responses Pattern recognition Comparison Choice Selection Working memory Long-term memory - knowledge, biases, beliefs Action

11 Critical Thinking — for Situational Awareness
Critical thinking for situational awareness — seek information Essential components: Accuracy — Is the information true? Clarity — Can the information be understood? Precision — Seek detail to understand the situation. Relevance — Is the information connected to the situation? Depth — Does the information address the complexity of the situation? Breadth — Are there other points of view or other ways to consider this situation? Logic — Does your understanding of the situation make sense? Whenever you do not understand something, ask yourself a question for clarification

12 Critical Thinking — for Decision Making
Critical thinking for decision making — the choice of action Essential components: State the objective of the decision to be made Identify information to be used in making the decision Gather the evidence and information required to make a decision Make a decision based on criteria (a safe outcome), information and risks Ask what the evidence and information mean, considering the objective

13 Safety, Game, Player Management
Critical Thinking Critical thinking is at the center of all safety processes and human activity. Safety, Game, Player Management Critical Thinking Situational Awareness Decision Making

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