Presentation on theme: "Using Situational awareness and decision making"— Presentation transcript:
1 Using Situational awareness and decision making Critical thinkingUsing Situational awareness and decision makingThinking About Thinking
2 Situational Awareness Good situational awareness requires:Gathering data (sensing, perception), seeking cues in the environmentAssembling information to give understanding (comprehension)Thinking ahead (projection)Thinking about situational awareness involves:Directing our attention to seek data; scanning a range of sourcesEvaluating information without bias, for accuracy and relevanceUnderstanding, using our knowledge and previous experiencesComparing and checking, visualizing future events — ‘What if?’Planning ahead, considering possible outcomesPlayDefenseOffenseFutureNowSituationSCANEVALUATEANTICIPATECONSIDERPlanningAheadGathering dataUnderstanding
3 Decision Making O A D A Observe Analyze Deduce Act Decision making requires an understanding of the situation and controlled thinking.Decision making involves assessment and choosing a course of action.The situation determines the urgency of the decision, risks and limits of action.O A D A ObserveAnalyzeDeduceActControlled thinking:Reduces riskModerates behaviorManages time constraintsUses knowledge; seeks optionsJudges relevance and the quality of the choicePrepares for action, evaluates the outcome or a future situation
4 Critical ThinkingCritical thinking provides the mental control and discipline required for situational assessment and decision making. It involves several skills that can be learned, practiced and improved.Control your mind by:Seeking and understanding information, facts and dataEffective planning, briefing and communicationIncreasing knowledge; gaining experienceLearning within a context (situation)Maintain discipline by:Being aware of how you think; affects possessionEvaluating your actions; having self regulationBeing aware of all available resourcesBeing sensitive to feedbackCritical thinking is the skill of thinking about your thinkingThink inside the box before you think outside of the box“Are we in charge of our thinking, or is our thinking in charge of us?“
5 Critical Thinking — Self awareness Self awareness — self questioning, self monitoringAm I biased in my thinking?Have I made a plan for what I want to do?Are my ideas or knowledge on this issue correct?Am I aware of my thinking; what am I trying to do?Am I using all of the resources for what I want to do?Am I evaluating my thinking; what would I do differently next time?Am I aware of how well I am doing; do I need to change my actions or intentions?Monitoring is checking the quality or testing the accuracy of a situation on a regular basis. It is keeping a close watch over parameters and supervising the outcome.It is checking for threats in our thinking.
6 Critical Thinking — Knowledge Improving your thinking — KnowledgeAbout yourselfCommitment: training, not letting feelings or individual preference detract from the gamePositive attitudes: seeing the big picture, persistence, resourcefulness, learning from set-backsAttention to detail: determining relevance, assessing affectsAbout the thinking processesKnowing the facts necessary to do a task by seeking informationKnowing how to do a task, how to scan, understand and think aheadKnowing why certain strategies work, when to use them, why one is better than anotherKnowledge to control the thinking processesSelf evaluation: assessing current technical knowledge, setting objectives, selecting resourcesSelf regulation: checking progress; reviewing choices, procedures, objectives, resourcesPlanning: choosing and planning a path to the objective, using proceduresPlanning is the process of thinking about what you will do in the event of something happening or not happening.
7 Critical Thinking — Habits Improving your thinking — HabitsChanging our thinking habits requires effort; clear thinking is an essential part of officiating and has to be developed throughout our careers.5 Levels of skill:Unskilled: Basic training only provides those skills necessary to be on the field.Skilled: Continuation training and experience enable effective management.Effective: More technical knowledge, practiced skills and experience give an efficient operation.Efficient: Skillful command in controlling the game and crew leadership move toward a precision operation.Precision: An official who has gained and maintains precise technical and non-technical skills as a result of great personal effort.Expert thinkersFocus on central issuesIdentify relevant informationConsider information on meritTest and check the basis of their awareness and decisions
8 Your thoughts control your actions. Critical Thinking — Personal briefingImproving your thinking — BriefingBefore games, self-briefing reinforces memory cues and knowledge, which aid the recall of information for use in situational assessment and decision making.Know what, who, where and when to prioritize your attentionAlways brief routine situations — repetition aids memoryStructure the briefing along game situationsVisualize your actions (position, players, calls)Consider the significant game situationsRecall lessons from trainingRefresh mechanics and rulesWhat if questionsDo not rush:Your thoughts control your actions.
9 Critical Thinking — Personal debrief Improving your thinking — DebriefAfter each game, consider the following points: Plus, Minus, InterestingPlus:What was goodWhat went according to planMinus:What was not so good, and whyWhat didn’t you know; find the answer before the next gameInteresting:Have you changed the way you see things:situations, penalties, players, mechanicsWhat did you learn, why, and where did theinformation come from?Will you share this with others; if not why not?Anything for a commissioner, assignor to report?Any issues for confidential reporting?Did you experience:Administration, field, supply issues?Poor attitudesBiased opinionsMismanaged timeUnanswered questions
10 Thinking about Situational Awareness and Decision Making Situational awareness and decision making depend on our ability to think.Thinking enables humans to be very successful, but this ability also enables errors that, if not controlled, present risks in our daily activities.Value your ability, use it wiselyGamePlayersSituationsMonitorSenses:SeeHearDecision MakingSituational AwarenessReviewResponsesPattern recognitionComparisonChoiceSelectionWorking memoryLong-term memory - knowledge, biases, beliefsAction
11 Critical Thinking — for Situational Awareness Critical thinking for situational awareness — seek informationEssential components:Accuracy — Is the information true?Clarity — Can the information be understood?Precision — Seek detail to understand the situation.Relevance — Is the information connected to the situation?Depth — Does the information address the complexity of the situation?Breadth — Are there other points of view or other ways to consider this situation?Logic — Does your understanding of the situation make sense?Whenever you do not understand something, ask yourself a question for clarification
12 Critical Thinking — for Decision Making Critical thinking for decision making — the choice of actionEssential components:State the objective of the decision to be madeIdentify information to be used in making the decisionGather the evidence and information required to make a decisionMake a decision based on criteria (a safe outcome), information and risksAsk what the evidence and information mean, considering the objective
13 Safety, Game, Player Management Critical ThinkingCritical thinking is at the center of all safety processes and human activity.Safety, Game, Player ManagementCritical ThinkingSituationalAwarenessDecisionMaking