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Analyzing and Managing Aquatic Ecosystems and Habitats, - World Bank Perspective Tor Ziegler The World Bank SUMBER:

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Presentation on theme: "Analyzing and Managing Aquatic Ecosystems and Habitats, - World Bank Perspective Tor Ziegler The World Bank SUMBER:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Analyzing and Managing Aquatic Ecosystems and Habitats, - World Bank Perspective Tor Ziegler The World Bank SUMBER:

2 Why Is Water Resources Management Critical Population Growing Increasing demand for water Growing pollution Constant amount of water in the cycle Economy Growing Increased competition for scarce water Need for allocation and conflict resolution SUMBER:

3 Enabling Environment ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY SOCIAL EQUITY ECOSYSTEM SUSTAINABILITY PoliciesLegislation Central- local Public- private River basin AssessmentInformation Allocation tools Enabling environment Institutional Roles Management Instruments The ENABLING ENVIRONMENT sets the rules, the INSTITUTIONAL ROLES and functions define the players who make use of the MANAGEMENT INSTRUMENTS SUMBER:

4 Comprehensive Framework for Water Resources Management Integrated Water Resources Management PoliciesPolicies StrategiesStrategies InstitutionsInstitutions InstrumentsInstruments People Food Security EnvironmentOther Water Supply and Sanitation Irrigation and drainage Pollution control WetlandsFisheriesBiodiversityEnergyNavigation Flood management SUMBER:

5 Sustainability Criteria (Gleick, 1995) A minimum water requirement is guaranteed (and realized) to all humans to maintain human health. Sufficient water is guaranteed to restore and maintain the health, services and functions of ecosystems. Specific amounts will vary depending of climatic and other conditions. Setting these amounts will require flexible and adaptive management. Data on water resources availability, use, and quality are collected and accessible to all stakeholders. Water quality is maintained to meet agreed standards. Human actions in the basin do not impair the long-term renewability of freshwater stocks and flows. Institutional mechanisms exist to resolve conflicts over water. Water planning and decision making are participatory and all affected stakeholders are represented

6 ... conclusions...on substance... International Waters regional seas (Baltic, Black), lakes (Victoria, Ohrid), rivers (Mekong, Danube, Nile), groundwater (Guarani, Western Africa) GEF-supported WB comparative advantage: convening power, human capital. Rules of engagement: high risk - high return, demonstrated commitment, shared vision, secretariat

7 What are the main challenges ahead? A DELICATE BALANCE Water for LIVELIHOOD Water as a RESOURCE Water and sanitation for PEOPLE Rainfall and irrigation water for FOOD Water for the economic functions of ECOSYSYEMS maintaining the RESOURCE BASE, both surface and groundwater - and biodiversity …while….

8 From Rhetoric to Action Meat on the bone Cases Mekong Water Utilization Project Lesotho Highlands, DRIFT Manantali Dam, Senegal River

9 Mekong Water Utilization Project Operationalization of key elements of 1995 Agreement on Cooperation for Sustainable Development of Mekong Basin Period: 2000 - 2007 Formulation & adoption of basin development plan 03: Functional, integrated basin modeling package 03: Inst. & test water knowledge base and info syst. 04: Protoc. for info exch., monitor. & notif. Proced. 05: Adopt provis. instr. flow rules (incl. min. flow) Input: Hydrological and hydraulic modeling; purchase commercial software and hardware; Supplemental data collection etc; integration of existing data-bases; training of staff; consultations on modeling results for formulating rules of utilization; ++++

10 Lesotho Highlands 1 1986 treaty L/SA for 70 cms interbasin transfer from LH to Johannesburg region reassessment, EF- scenarios developed 1986 treaty specified 0.5 + 0.3 cms minimum flow 1990s political transformation, SA water law environmental reserve, downstream concerns Application of DRIFT-methodology, Downstream Response to Imposed Flow Transformation (King) Decision-making using scenarios not finalized yet However, redesign of Mohale dam outlet structure allowing 3-4 cms to pass as environmental flows, and up to 57 cms for artificial floods

11 Manantali dam 1 (Senegal, Mali & Mauritania, - Senegal river) Unintended impacts of 1988 dam: Outbreak of bilharzia Traditional flow recession agriculture hit Dry season pastures for herders Flood plain fisheries, proteins for locals Village drinking water supplies Flood forests and wetland areas

12 Manantali dam (+ Diama) Intended Water Charter Impact issues raised with WB in April 1996, - not earlier involved Credit negotiations with WB for 200 MW hydro + transmission did include water management optimization program outline Nov. 1997 Dakar workshop reviewed proposed environmental impact mitigation and monitoring program Project launch workshop in Bamako, June, 1998 Rainy seasons artificial flood test program 1997, 98 & 99, Public information & consultations, + Advisory expert panel 99 Ongoing: Reservoir management planning for optimization of artificial floods, and addressing fisheries aspects, cost/benefit analysis, and preparation of Water Charter (WC) WC will establish water allocation under different hydrological conditions, expected to be adopted by the 3 Governments in 2001

13 The Bank/Netherlands Water Partnership Program (BNWPP) BNWPP Ecological Flow (EF) window supports: Better integration of EF concepts into project -EA, - preparation & appraisal Addressing existing projects that offer opportunities for introducing EF Instit. reforms that support leverage of EF EF initiatives related to allocation of international waters

14 Challenges for Model-builders: Have to meet real management needs! Work with in-country counterparts to build ownership to models and their applications Possibly develop model with client or modify standard models where source code is open Models need to be compatible with availability of input-data and their costs, design simple approximation solutions when data inadequate Man/machine interface and educating decision-makers in using decision support models, build confidence in use Promote use of models to form a basis for basic assessments, combined with monitoring and adaptive management when project implemented Produce a record/report/website of cases that convincingly demonstrates applications Support initiative to create regional expert nodes and networks in developing countries, - twinning with both north and south experts

15 Challenges for Model-builders: Shared vision/scenario- building oriented Habitat and population dynamics modeling of tropical and sub-tropical aquatic ecosystems Wetland modeling in habitat, bio-diversity and bio-productivity context Seek cost-effectiveness, and keep an eye on rationing on data requirements Optimize cost/benefit if considering increasing data requirements to achieve improved model resolution and predictive capacity More field-tests and verification of findings from model simulations Models for assessment of GHG emission from reservoirs Integrated models for use in developing water resources strategies; and as decision support for WRM & River Basin trade-off/water allocation considerations Models that will support interstate upstream/downstream negotiations on shared rivers

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