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The Stone Ages and Early Cultures Mr. Perkins Fall 2015.

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1 The Stone Ages and Early Cultures Mr. Perkins Fall 2015

2 Glossary Terms prehistory hominid ancestor tool Paleolithic Era society hunter-gatherers

3 Prehistory The time before written history Written history has only lasted about 5,000 years Historians rely on archaeological evidence (artifacts & fossils) to recreate this time in history Study early ancestors of humans, or hominids

4 Hominids Relatives of modern day humans who lived in the past Bones found in Tanzania in 1959 = 1.5 million years old Bones found in 1974 in Ethiopia = 3 million years ago Bones found in 1994 in Ethiopia = 4.4 million years ago

5 Early Hominids Homo sapiens 200,000 years ago Homo erectus 2-1.5 million years ago Homo habilis 2.4 million years ago Australopithecus 4-5 million years ago

6 Early Hominids Australopithecus – “southern ape” – stood upright and walked on two legs – brain was ⅓ the size of modern humans Homo habilis – “handy man” – used early stone tools for chopping and scraping – brain was ½ the size of modern humans Homo erectus – “upright man” – used early stone tools like a hand axe – controlled fire – migrated out of Africa to Asia and Europe Homo sapiens – “wise man” – migrated around the world – we are this species! – learned to create fire and use many types of tools – developed languages

7 Stone Age Broken into three different eras Paleolithic = “Old Stone” Mesolithic = “Middle Stone” Neolithic = “New Stone“


9 Paleolithic Era First part of the Stone Age – h?v=L9AJUo6busg h?v=L9AJUo6busg Lasted until 10,000 years ago People used basic stone tools – Oldest tools found in Tanzania (2.6 million years old) – Tools used to cut food – Used for about 2 million years – Later tools include axe and spear


11 Hunter-Gatherers More complex tools = hunting larger animals = hunting parties or societies, a community of people that share a common culture People traveled around for food, water, & shelter (nomads) Stone Age humans survived as hunter-gatherers (people who killed animals and gathered wild fruit to eat)

12 Hunter-Gatherers Hunters were men – Chased large animals off cliffs Gatherers were women – Stayed near homes close to kids Societies were different from one another – nomadic/sedentary – agrarian/pastoral – patriarchal/matriarchal – monogamous/polygamous

13 Language, Art, & Religion Language – most important Stone Age development – people could work together Art – carvings – cave paintings Religion – buried dead with food/items ( atch?v=NT8f5t7uH0E) atch?v=NT8f5t7uH0E – first examples of religion

14 Waiting on the World To Change Climate change around the world – People move to new places Ice Ages – 1.6 million years ago – Frozen ice around the world (http://www.creswell- – Ended 10,000 years ago – Land bridge (Asia to North America) Migration – – Humans followed animals – 9,000 B.C. = humans live everywhere except Antarctica

15 Adaptation People on one continent were different from others – Ate different food – Lived in different climate Fire – Kept people warm – Animal skins as clothes Shelters – Pit houses – Tents made from animal skin

16 Mesolithic Era 10,000 to 5,000 years ago More complex tools – Made from bone and stone – Hooks and fishing spears – Bow and arrow – ch?v=67r2Q_rWYGo ch?v=67r2Q_rWYGo Other tools – Canoes – Pottery – Pets

17 Bellringer – 9/1/15 How did humans find food during the Paleolithic/Mesolithic? What effect did the Ice Ages have on human? How did it change their lives?

18 Lesson 3 Terms Neolithic Era Domestication Agriculture Megaliths

19 What They Left Behind As people migrated, they dropped seeds on the ground. These plants began to grow in places they weren’t native to.

20 Neolithic Era Began about 10,000 years ago Began in Southwest Asia – Started to spread across the world afterward – Lasted in other countries longer New tools started to be created

21 Tools and Pottery thic-pinch-pots thic-pinch-pots Stone beads used for jewelryOldest mask in the world – 7,000 B.C.

22 Biggest Changes End of Ice Age brought new plants – Wild barley & wheat in Southwest Asia – People settled where new plants grew People carried seeds and animals around – Domesticated crops & animals, or changed to benefit humans – Domestication of plants is known as agriculture

23 Plants & Animals Plants – Shift from food gathering to food producing = Neolithic Revolution First occurred in Southwest Asia Animals – Less hunting – Farmers raised their own animals Cattle, sheep, goats Animals also used for milk, food, wool, and farming

24 Less Work = More Play People used less time hunting or searching for fruit – Parents could spend more time with children – Games began to be created – People stayed in one area – Population began to grow larger – More time for religion Built megaliths, or giant religious monuments Elements, animals, and ancestors

25 _gMtw


27 Effects of the Neolithic Revolution People ate the same amount – But grew more food Which means they had too much food Overproducing food caused: – Erosion – Flooding – Overpopulation

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